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American Indians Collection

History Archive - American Indians Collection

American Indians is the name given to the people found in North and South America when discovered by the Europeans. They were called Indians because the newly found land was supposed to be a part of India. These scattered tribes, while varying in civilization from the rudest savages to the cultivated Aztecs of Mexico, and Incas of Peru, are now thought to belong to the same race. They are brown or copper-colored, with straight, black hair, high cheek bones, head rather square and flattened behind.

Their origin is uncertain, though all the tribes have traditions of an early emigration from some region either north or south. The most civilized tribes when America was discovered, were those found from New Mexico to Peru. They had buildings of which remains are still found; while the northern Indians dwelt in tents or other movable buildings. All the tribes were hunters and fishers, raising a few crops, as corn, beans and tobacco. They made pottery, stone pipes, arrowheads, snow-shoes and bark canoes and baskets.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico built towns and temples. The Mexican and Peruvian tribes had modes of keeping records. They were governed by chiefs, who sometimes were made such by inheritance and sometimes by merit. They believed in a future life, and carefully buried their dead. In South America and Mexico the Indians have largely mingled with the conquering races, and are much less distinct from them than in the United States.

The Indian wars of the United States began in Virginia in 1622 and in New England in 1637, and continued at intervals, with many victories by the Indians and terrible massacres of the whites; but in the long run with the sure defeat of the savage by the arts and arms of civilization. The Indians have been steadily pushed westward, and have been deprived of their lands by treaties, which have again and again been broken.

The policy of the United States government was to break up the reservations, do away with the tribes and make citizens of the Indians. Schools have been established, and there are 12 government training schools for Indian youth, where from 3,000 to 4,000 can be cared for. In 1907 the appropriation made by Congress for Indian schools was over $9,000,000. In 1887 Congress confirmed the Indian title to all reservations, of which there are about 133, including 116,000,000 acres. Every Indian in the United States, with the exception of the Alaska Indians and those of the five civilized tribes, could receive 160 acres apiece, and still enough land be left to pay the entire cost of educating the Indian children.

The whole number of Indians in the United States, leaving out Alaska, in 1905 was 284,079. They are found in Maine, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, North and South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming, California, Texas and Oklahoma. Some of the principal tribes, at present, are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Chippewas, Chickasaws, Sioux, Illinois, Sacs, Foxes, Seminoles, Comanches, Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos, Cheyennes and Nez Perces.

References:

See; A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson; American Indians by Catlin; Native Races of the Pacific States by Bancroft; Story of the American Indian by Brooks; and Red Race of America by Schoolcraft.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pgs. 922.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
American Indians - An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay An Account of the Countries Adjoining to Hudson's Bay 1744
American Indians - History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians 1899
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 1 1838
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 1 1851
American Indians - Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas 1840
American Indians - Border Wars of the West Border Wars of the West 1853
American Indians - Report Upon the Colorado River of the West Report Upon the Colorado River of the West 1861
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 5 1851
American Indians - The Great Southwest The Great Southwest 1919
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1913
American Indians - Geronimo's Story of His Life Geronimo's Story of His Life 1906
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 2 1860
American Indians - Myths of the Cherokee Myths of the Cherokee 1902
American Indians - Catlin's Indian Portfolio Catlin's Indian Portfolio 1844
American Indians - Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde 1862
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 3 1844
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 1823
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 2 North American Indians Vol. 2 1926
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 4 1839
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 2 1841
American Indians - The Song of the Ancient People The Song of the Ancient People 1893
American Indians - Memoirs, Official and Personal Memoirs, Official and Personal 1846
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 6 1851
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1926
American Indians - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 2 1851
American Indians - The Last of the Mohicans The Last of the Mohicans 1919
American Indians - Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico Turquois Work of Hawikuh, New Mexico 1921
American Indians - Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund Amerika: eine allgemeine Landeskund 1894
American Indians - Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes 1851
American Indians - Origin of the Red Men Origin of the Red Men 1849
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 2 Algic Researches Vol. 2 1839
American Indians - History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 History of the Indian Tribes of North America Vol. 2 1838
American Indians - Our Wild Indians Our Wild Indians 1883
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 1823
American Indians - Views of Florida Views of Florida 1837
American Indians - The Myth of Hiawatha The Myth of Hiawatha 1856
American Indians - Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes 1827
American Indians - Three Years Among the Camanches Three Years Among the Camanches 1859
American Indians - Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 Reise in das innere Nord-America Vol. 3 1839
American Indians - Algic Researches Vol. 1 Algic Researches Vol. 1 1839
American Indians - The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico The Marvellous Country : or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico 1873
American Indians - The Welch Indians The Welch Indians 1922
American Indians - The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee 1823
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 4 1851
American Indians - North American Indians Vol. 1 North American Indians Vol. 1 1913
American Indians - The Indian Races of North and South America The Indian Races of North and South America 1853
American Indians - New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America 1797
American Indians - Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben 1860
American Indians - Life Among the Paiutes Life Among the Paiutes 1883
American Indians - Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the Indian Tribes Pt. 3 1851
American Indians - White Indians of Darien White Indians of Darien 1934
American Indians - Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico Early Discoveries by Spaniards in New Mexico 1857
American Indians - Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 1823
American Indians - A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida A True and Authentic Account of the Indian War in Florida 1836
American Indians - Indian Wars of the United States Indian Wars of the United States 1850
American Indians - Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America 1781
American Indians - The Aboriginal Port Folio The Aboriginal Port Folio 1836
American Indians - Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior 1863
American Indians - A History of the United States Before the Revolution A History of the United States Before the Revolution 1819
American Indians - American Ethnology American Ethnology 1849
American Indians - The American Aboriginal Portfolio The American Aboriginal Portfolio 1853
American Indians - Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life 1897
American Indians - Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America Vol. 1 1860
American Indians - Drawings by Frederic Remington Drawings by Frederic Remington 1897

Related Images

Image Name
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Group of Buffaloes (1859)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Book Display [II] (1926)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Catching the Wild Horse (1844)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 262 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Chutes du Columbia (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 40 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 20 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 60 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Caa-taa-ke Mung-ga or the Speckled Loon, a Miami Chief (1836)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Rocher Hieroglyphique (1862)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Pferderennen des Sioux Indianer bei Fort Pierre. / Course aux cheavaux des Indiens Sioux près du Fort Pierre. / Horse racing of Sioux Indians near Fort Pierre. (1840)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Abraham Quary, the last Indian of the Nantucket tribe age 64 (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 153 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 131 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Waa-bin-de-ba or the White Headed Eagle, a Chippeway Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 210a (1926)
The Great Southwest - El Ortiz, Lamy, New Mexico (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 212 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 266 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Hostiles Watching the Column (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 220 (1926)
Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life - The Last of the Mohicans - Cora a Prisoner to the Hurons (1897)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Inscriptions Indiennes (1862)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Captain of Infantry in Field Rig (1897)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 288 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 186 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Das Dampfboot Yellow-Stone am 19-ten April 1833. / Le bateau à vapeur Yellow-Stone, le 19 Avril 1883. / The steamer Yellow-Stone on the 19th April 1833. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 107 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 138 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 294 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Götzenbilder der Mandan Indianer. / Idoles des Indiens Mandans. / Idols of the Mandan Indians. (1840)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Mountain Lion Hunting (1897)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels in the Territory of the Hudson's Bay Company (1859)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Title Page (1926)
The Great Southwest - Juan Capistrano Mission, California (1919)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Satsikaa (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 115 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Petrified Forest, Arizona (1919)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Tens-qua-ta-wa or the One that Opens the Door, Shawnese Prophet, brother of Tecumthe (1836)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Pueblo Indien (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Frontispiece - The Author Painting a Chief in an Indian Village (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Snags (im Missouri versunkene Baumstämme). / Snags (troncs d'arbres obstruant le cours du Missouri). / Snags (sunken trees on the Missouri). (1840)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Title Page (1859)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 311 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 304 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Mirage on the Desert, Arizona (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 87 (1926)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Eji tanyank. Timpa es Todos Santos cost (Kaliforniai felsziget) (1860)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 295 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Monts Witchita (1862)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Bisontanz der Mandan Indianer vor der Medezin hütte in Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch. / Danse du bison des Indiens Mandans devant la Loge de Medecine à Mih-Toutta-Hangkouche. / Bison-dance of the Mandan Indieans in front of their Medecine Lodge in Mih-Tutta-Hankush. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 192 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Kaa-nun-der-waaguinse-zoo or the Berry Picker, a famous Chippewa Chief (1836)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Campirende Punka-Indianer am ufer des Msisouri. / Indiens Ponkas Campés sur les bords du Missouri. / Punka Indians encamped on the banks of the Missouri. (1840)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Buffalo Hunt Approaching in a Ravine (1844)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Pe-che-co, a Pottowattomie Chief (1836)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - A Chippeway Chief (1836)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1823)
Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life - Back Cover (1897)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Opfer der Mandan Indianer. / Offrande des Indiens Mandans. / Offering of the Mandan Indians. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 113 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Modern Cavalry Camp (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 16 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - A view of the Butte des Morts Treaty ground with the arrival of the Commissioners Gov. Lewis Cass and Col. McKenney in 1827 (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 17 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Ma- che-ka-kat or the Bad Hawk, Monomonie Chief (1836)
The Great Southwest - The Alvarado, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1919)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Runi (1862)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 - Title Page (1823)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Vallee du Williams (1862)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Book Display II (1862)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Cowboy Leading Calf (1897)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Todtengerüste eines Sioux-Chefs bei Fort Pierre. / Échafaudage funeraire d'un chef Sioux près du Fort Pierre. / Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief near Fort Pierre. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 126 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Government Pack Train (1897)
The Great Southwest - Yosemite Valley, California, General View from Artist's Point (1919)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - The Son, a Miami Chief (1836)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - The Pipe dance and the Tomahawk dance of the Chippeway tribe (1836)
The Great Southwest - Spanish Peaks, Colorado (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 214 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Snow Indian or the Northwest Type (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 230 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Ansicht der Rocky Mountains. / Vue des Montagnes Rocheuses. / View of the Rocky Mountains. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 12 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 250 (1926)
Views of Florida - Soldiers in Camp Outside the Fortified Houses, Picolata, Florida (1837)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Kaskaia / Shienne Chief / Awappaho (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Front Cover (1823)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Front Cover (1863)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 238 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Waa-ba-shaw, a celebrated Sioux Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 6 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Book Display (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 101a (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Nez Perce Indian (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 222 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Mássika, Sáki Indianer. Mássika, Indien Saki. / Mássika, Saki Indian; Wakusásse, Musquake Indianer. / Wakusásse, Indien Musquake (Renard). Wakusásse, Musquake Indian. (1840)

Related Maps

Map Name
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North and 35 Degrees North (1823)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kalifornia Deli Reszet - 1858 (1860)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)

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