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American Indians Collection

History Archive - American Indians Collection

American Indians is the name given to the people found in North and South America when discovered by the Europeans. They were called Indians because the newly found land was supposed to be a part of India. These scattered tribes, while varying in civilization from the rudest savages to the cultivated Aztecs of Mexico, and Incas of Peru, are now thought to belong to the same race. They are brown or copper-colored, with straight, black hair, high cheek bones, head rather square and flattened behind.

Their origin is uncertain, though all the tribes have traditions of an early emigration from some region either north or south. The most civilized tribes when America was discovered, were those found from New Mexico to Peru. They had buildings of which remains are still found; while the northern Indians dwelt in tents or other movable buildings. All the tribes were hunters and fishers, raising a few crops, as corn, beans and tobacco. They made pottery, stone pipes, arrowheads, snow-shoes and bark canoes and baskets.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico built towns and temples. The Mexican and Peruvian tribes had modes of keeping records. They were governed by chiefs, who sometimes were made such by inheritance and sometimes by merit. They believed in a future life, and carefully buried their dead. In South America and Mexico the Indians have largely mingled with the conquering races, and are much less distinct from them than in the United States.

The Indian wars of the United States began in Virginia in 1622 and in New England in 1637, and continued at intervals, with many victories by the Indians and terrible massacres of the whites; but in the long run with the sure defeat of the savage by the arts and arms of civilization. The Indians have been steadily pushed westward, and have been deprived of their lands by treaties, which have again and again been broken.

The policy of the United States government was to break up the reservations, do away with the tribes and make citizens of the Indians. Schools have been established, and there are 12 government training schools for Indian youth, where from 3,000 to 4,000 can be cared for. In 1907 the appropriation made by Congress for Indian schools was over $9,000,000. In 1887 Congress confirmed the Indian title to all reservations, of which there are about 133, including 116,000,000 acres. Every Indian in the United States, with the exception of the Alaska Indians and those of the five civilized tribes, could receive 160 acres apiece, and still enough land be left to pay the entire cost of educating the Indian children.

The whole number of Indians in the United States, leaving out Alaska, in 1905 was 284,079. They are found in Maine, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, North and South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming, California, Texas and Oklahoma. Some of the principal tribes, at present, are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Chippewas, Chickasaws, Sioux, Illinois, Sacs, Foxes, Seminoles, Comanches, Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos, Cheyennes and Nez Perces.

References:

See; A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson; American Indians by Catlin; Native Races of the Pacific States by Bancroft; Story of the American Indian by Brooks; and Red Race of America by Schoolcraft.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pgs. 922.

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Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 197 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 293 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Wald-Ansicht am Lecha (Pennsylvanien). / Forêt sur le Lehigh (Pennsylvanie). / Forest scene on the Lehigh (Pennsylvania). (1840)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Pach-e-po, a Pottowattomie Chief. This young Chief is the son of Me-o-ne-me, a Chief who served with Gen. Harrison during the late war and was killed at the River Thames (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 248 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Bisonheerden und Elkhirsche am obern Missouri. / Troupeauz de bisons et d'elks sur le haut Missouri. / Herds of bisons and elks on the upper Missouri. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 266 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 196 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 204 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 164 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Fight Over a Water Hole (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 67 (1926)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 - View of the Chasm through which the Platte issues from the Rocky Mountains (1823)
Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life - The Pioneers - Leatherstocking to the Rescue (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 63 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Tours Basaltiques (1862)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Ma-ko-me-ta or Bear's Oil, a Monomonie Chief (1836)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Misdeal (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 45 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 173 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Bisonheerge am obern Missouri. / Troupeau de bisons sur le haut Missouri. / Herd of bisons on the upper Missouri. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 115 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 181 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Pehriska-Ruhpa, ein Mönnitarri-Indianer. / Pehriska-Ruhpa, Indien-Moennitarre ou gros Ventre. / Pehriska-Ruhpa, a minatarre or big bellied Indian (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 188 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Lac de la Pyramide (1862)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Ash-e-taa-na-quet, a celebrated Chippeway Chief (1836)
The Great Southwest - Needles Mountains and Colorado River, California (1919)
The Great Southwest - Indian Building, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1919)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Ischohä-Kakoschóchatä, Tanz der Mandan Indianer. / Ischohä-Kakoschóchatä, Dance des Indiens Mandans. / Dance of the Manda Indians. (1840)
The Great Southwest - Canyon Diablo, Arizona (1919)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Mássika, Sáki Indianer. Mássika, Indien Saki. / Mássika, Saki Indian; Wakusásse, Musquake Indianer. / Wakusásse, Indien Musquake (Renard). Wakusásse, Musquake Indian. (1840)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Sun Fisher (1897)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Schlangen-Indianerinn. Indienne serpent. Woman of the Snake-tribe; / Crih-Indianerinn. Indienne Crih. Woman of the Cree-tribe. (1840)
The Great Southwest - Mystic Maze of the Mojave Indians near Needles, California (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 286 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Abdih-Hiddisch, Mönnitarri -Chef. / Abdih-Hiddisch, Chef Meunitarri. / Abdih-HIddisch, a Minatarre Chief. (1840)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Kee-o-kuck or the Watching Fox, the present Chief of the Sank tribe and Successor to Black Hawk (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 122 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Elle of Ganado-Indian Building, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Most famous weaver among the Navajo. (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 113 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Yosemite Valley, California, General View from Artist's Point (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 291 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 128 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Fort Pierre am Missouri. / Fort Pierre sur le Missouri. / Fort Pierre on the Missouri. (1840)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 64 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Pachtüwa-Chtä, Arrikkara Krieger. / Pachtüwa-Chtä, Geurrier Arrikkara. / Pachtüwa-Chtä, Arrikkara Warrior. (1840)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Greaser (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 301 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - O'-check-ka or Four Legs, Head Chief of the Winnebagoes on Winnebago Lake Michigan (1836)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Vallee du Williams (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 178 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Niagara Fälle. / Les chûtes du Niagara. / Niagara falls. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 234 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Scout - 1868 (1897)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Saki und Musquake Indianer. / Indiens Sâkis et Renards. / Saukie and Fox Indianians. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 131 (1926)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - A Sierra Nevada tetejen, Julius 13 an (1860)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 207 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 11 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Ma-ga-zee, a Pottawatomie Chief (1836)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Chef der Blut Indianer. Chef des Indiens Sangs. Chief of the Blood-Indians; Kriegs Chef der Piekann Indianer. Chef de guerre des Indines Piékanns. War-chief of the Piekann Indians; Kutanä Indianer. Indien Koutané. Koutani Indian. (1840)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Front Cover (1863)
Views of Florida - Attack of the Seminoles on the Block House (1837)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Campirende Punka-Indianer am ufer des Msisouri. / Indiens Ponkas Campés sur les bords du Missouri. / Punka Indians encamped on the banks of the Missouri. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 308 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 312 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 28 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 265 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Tshu-gue-ga, a celebrated Chief, half Winnebago and half French (1836)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Interior of Sioux lodge (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 59 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Mato-Tope, gesmückt mit den Leichen seiner Kriegshalten. / Mato-Tope, paré des emblèmes des ses faits d'armes. / Mato-Tope, adorned with the insignia of his warlike deeds. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 263 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 259 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Lager der Piekann Indianer. / Camp des Indiens Piekann. / Encampment of the Piekann Indians. (1840)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Dying Buffalo Bull in a Snow Drift (1844)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Title Page (1823)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Na-che-mung-ga, a Miami Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 100 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 240 (1926)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Wounded Buffalo Bull (1844)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - A Reservation Indian (1897)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Ma- che-ka-kat or the Bad Hawk, Monomonie Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 253 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 48 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 241 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 107 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Coronado's March, Colorado (1897)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Half-Breed Horse Thieves of the Northwest (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 306 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Francis Godfroy. A celebrated chief among the Miamis, half French & half Miami (1836)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Na-ma-nis Cut, a Pottowattamie Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Title Page (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Original Blue Wrapper (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 33 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 8 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - The Missionary and the Medicine Man (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 210a (1926)

Related Maps

Map Name
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North and 35 Degrees North (1823)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kalifornia Deli Reszet - 1858 (1860)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)

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