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American Indians Collection

History Archive - American Indians Collection

American Indians is the name given to the people found in North and South America when discovered by the Europeans. They were called Indians because the newly found land was supposed to be a part of India. These scattered tribes, while varying in civilization from the rudest savages to the cultivated Aztecs of Mexico, and Incas of Peru, are now thought to belong to the same race. They are brown or copper-colored, with straight, black hair, high cheek bones, head rather square and flattened behind.

Their origin is uncertain, though all the tribes have traditions of an early emigration from some region either north or south. The most civilized tribes when America was discovered, were those found from New Mexico to Peru. They had buildings of which remains are still found; while the northern Indians dwelt in tents or other movable buildings. All the tribes were hunters and fishers, raising a few crops, as corn, beans and tobacco. They made pottery, stone pipes, arrowheads, snow-shoes and bark canoes and baskets.

The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico built towns and temples. The Mexican and Peruvian tribes had modes of keeping records. They were governed by chiefs, who sometimes were made such by inheritance and sometimes by merit. They believed in a future life, and carefully buried their dead. In South America and Mexico the Indians have largely mingled with the conquering races, and are much less distinct from them than in the United States.

The Indian wars of the United States began in Virginia in 1622 and in New England in 1637, and continued at intervals, with many victories by the Indians and terrible massacres of the whites; but in the long run with the sure defeat of the savage by the arts and arms of civilization. The Indians have been steadily pushed westward, and have been deprived of their lands by treaties, which have again and again been broken.

The policy of the United States government was to break up the reservations, do away with the tribes and make citizens of the Indians. Schools have been established, and there are 12 government training schools for Indian youth, where from 3,000 to 4,000 can be cared for. In 1907 the appropriation made by Congress for Indian schools was over $9,000,000. In 1887 Congress confirmed the Indian title to all reservations, of which there are about 133, including 116,000,000 acres. Every Indian in the United States, with the exception of the Alaska Indians and those of the five civilized tribes, could receive 160 acres apiece, and still enough land be left to pay the entire cost of educating the Indian children.

The whole number of Indians in the United States, leaving out Alaska, in 1905 was 284,079. They are found in Maine, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Washington, North and South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming, California, Texas and Oklahoma. Some of the principal tribes, at present, are the Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Chippewas, Chickasaws, Sioux, Illinois, Sacs, Foxes, Seminoles, Comanches, Apaches, Navajos, Pueblos, Cheyennes and Nez Perces.

References:

See; A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson; American Indians by Catlin; Native Races of the Pacific States by Bancroft; Story of the American Indian by Brooks; and Red Race of America by Schoolcraft.

The New Student's Reference Work (1914) pgs. 922.

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Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 227 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 15 (1926)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Wounded Buffalo Bull (1844)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North (1823)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 307 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 6 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Montagne Pyramide (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 254 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Interior Indian Building, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1919)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Die weissen Schlösser am obern Missouri. / Les châteaux blancs, Missouri superieur. / The white castels on the upper Missouri. (1840)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Tours Basaltiques (1862)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Fac simile einer indianischen malerei. / Fac simile d'une peinture indienne. / Fac simile of an Indian painting. (1840)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Chutes du Petit Colorado (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 182 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Buffaloe hunt on the River Platte (1836)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Group of Buffaloes (1859)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Riding the Range - Winter (1897)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Leuchtthurm bei Cleveland am Erie See. / Phare de Clevelandsur le Lac Erie. / Cleveland Lighthouse on the Lake Erie. (1840)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Tshu-gue-ga, a celebrated Chief, half Winnebago and half French (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 208 (1926)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Archery of the Mandans (1844)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - His Death Song (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 132 (1926)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1823)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 35 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 281 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - Protecting a Wagon Train (1897)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Leuchtthurn von Boston. / Phare de Boston. / Boston Lighthouse. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 158 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Comanche (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Figs. 273, 274, 275 (1926)
The Great Southwest - Grand Canyon, Arizona, Sunset From Hopi Point (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 38 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Mi-a-qu-a, a Miami Chief (1836)
Historical Stories of American Pioneer Life - The Pathfinder - Pathfinder Shoots at the Target (1897)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Indian hieroglyphok Cajon hegyszorosban, Kaliforniaban (1860)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kaliforniai havasi jut (1860)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 101a (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 195 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 120 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 249 (1926)
Views of Florida - Soldiers in Camp Outside the Fortified Houses, Picolata, Florida (1837)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Buffalo Dance (1844)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Bellvue, Agentschaft des H. Dougherty am Missouri. / Bellvue, Agence de Mr. Dougherty sur le Missouri. / Bellvue, Mr. Dougherty's agency on the Missouri. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 11 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 172 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - A Young Miami Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 269 (1926)
The Great Southwest - El Ortiz, Lamy, New Mexico (1919)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 - Indian Record of a Battle between the Pawnees and the Konzas - A Facsimile of a Delineation upon a Bison Robe (1823)
Catlin's Indian Portfolio - Bear Dance (1844)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Lac de la Pyramide (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 187 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Ischohä-Kakoschóchatä, Tanz der Mandan Indianer. / Ischohä-Kakoschóchatä, Dance des Indiens Mandans. / Dance of the Manda Indians. (1840)
The Great Southwest - Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico (1919)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Lager der Gros Ventres des prairies am obern Missouri./ Camp des Gros Ventres des prairies sur le Missouri. / Camp of the Gros Ventres of the prairies on the upper Missouri. (1840)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Book Display (1823)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 33 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 72 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Mássika, Sáki Indianer. Mássika, Indien Saki. / Mássika, Saki Indian; Wakusásse, Musquake Indianer. / Wakusásse, Indien Musquake (Renard). Wakusásse, Musquake Indian. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 65 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 40 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Abraham Quary, the last Indian of the Nantucket tribe age 64 (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 46 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 131 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 200 (1926)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Satsikaa (1862)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Indian kovacsmuhely (San Fernando. Deli Kalifornia) (1860)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 2 - Title Page (1823)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - A celebrated Ottawa Chief (1836)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Femme Chinouk (1862)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - The Water in Arizona (1897)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 282 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 80 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 252 (1926)
Drawings by Frederic Remington - The Twilight of the Indian (1897)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Noápeh, Assiniboin Indianer. Noápeh, Indien Assiniboin. / Noápeh, an Assiniboin Indian; Psíhdjä-Sáhpa, Yanktonan Indianer. / Psíhdjä-Sáhpa, Indien Yanktonan. Psíhdjä-Sáhpa, a Yanktonan Indian. (1840)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Snags (im Missouri versunkene Baumstämme). / Snags (troncs d'arbres obstruant le cours du Missouri). / Snags (sunken trees on the Missouri). (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 225 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 312 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Mähsette-Kuiuab, Chef der Crih Indianer. / Mähsette-Kuiuab, Chef des Indiens Crih. / Mähsette-Kuiuab, Chief of the Crec-Indians. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 22 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 69 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
Voyage Pittoresque dans les Grands Deserts du Nouveau Monde - Pipes Antiques (1862)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 81 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 36 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - Fig. 308 (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Pa-she-nine or the Good Marksman, a Chippeway Chief (1836)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Indianische geräthschaften und Waffen. / Ustensiles et armes Indiens. / Indian utensils and arms. (1840)
The Great Southwest - The Old Church, Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico (1919)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Book Display [II] (1926)
The Aboriginal Port Folio - Pe-che-co, a Pottowattomie Chief (1836)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 108 (1926)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Opfer der Mandan Indianer. / Offrande des Indiens Mandans. / Offering of the Mandan Indians. (1840)
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Fig. 93 (1926)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)

Related Maps

Map Name
North American Indians Vol. 1 - Outline Map of the Indian Localities in 1833 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - United States Indian Frontier in 1840 (1926)
North American Indians Vol. 2 - A Chart Shewing the Moves of the Mandan and the Place of Their Extinction (1926)
Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior - Outline Map Showing he Position of the Ancient Mine Pits of Keweenaw Point (1863)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A New Map of North America from the Latest Discoveries - 1778 (1781)
Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America - A Plan of Captain Carver's Travels in the Interior Parts of North America (1781)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 1 - Map of the Country Drained by the Mississippi (1823)
Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Vol. 3 - Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 Degrees North and 35 Degrees North (1823)
Utazas Kalifornia deli Reszeiben - Kalifornia Deli Reszet - 1858 (1860)
Voyage dans l'Interieur de l'Amerique du Nord Atlas - Map to Illustrate the Route of Prince Maximilian of Wied (1840)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)

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