History Archive Icon

History Archive

Arctic

Collections > Regions > Arctic Collection

Arctic Collection

History Archive - Arctic Collection

The Arctic is the region around the North Pole, covering the area (both ocean and lands) where the characteristic polar conditions of climate, &c., obtain. The Arctic Circle is drawn at 66° 30' N. The Arctic Ocean is part of the ocean within the Arctic Circle. The main rivers flowing into it are the Mackenzie and Black in America, the Obi, Yenesei and Lena in Asia. Its largest islands are Spitzbergen, Wongatz and Nova Zembla in Europe, those of New Siberia in Asia and the Polar archipelago in America.

An expanse of ice of nearly 4,000,000 square miles extends during an eight-months winter round the pole, and even in summer the temperature is still at the freezing point. From this region come the icebergs which in spring and summer drift into the Atlantic. In the last three hundred years many voyages have been made to make discoveries in this region or to find a passage through it, but we know almost nothing about it. Besides the great dangers of ice, the sailor, often blinded by fogs and snow, has to face without guide or sea-room, storms, tides and currents of unknown waters. The highest point ever reached was by Lieutenant Peary, who in 1906 reached a point 206 miles distant from the north pole.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Melville Island from Banks' Land (1854)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Front Cover (1873)
A Voyage of Discovery - Arctic Highlander / Ervick, a Native of Prince Regents Bay. Lat. 76.12. N. Long. 65. W. (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - View of the Islands in Wolstenholme Sound (1819)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Bold Headland on Baring Island (1854)
Arctic Tides - Arctic Currents and Land According to A. Peterman (1865) (1911)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - The Expedition Discovering the Coppermine River. Sept. 1, 1820 (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Havnefiord (1811)
The North Pole - A Typical Example of the Difficulties of Working Sledges Over a Pressure Bridge (1910)
The North Pole - Illumination of the Roosevelt in Winter Quarters on a Moonlit Night Showing the Ice Pressure Close to the Ship (1910)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - The Tungu River and Alternating Geyser (1811)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Saviah, Chief of the Kutcha-Kutchin (1851)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Departure of South-West Division (1855)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Map of Elizabeth Harbour (1835)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - The Northern Termination of the Island of Kalsoe (1855)
The North Pole - Captain Bartlett and His Party (1910)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Front Cover (1913)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 2 - Cree Wigwams in Summer (1851)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - The Bivouac, Cape Seppings, Leopold Island (1850)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Myling Head as Seen from the South. 8100 Feet High (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Duck Shooting in Oomiak (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Natural History Drawings of Plants III (1823)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Nebensonnen (1873)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Plan of an Icelandic House (1811)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Umingmak Command, J.C. Ross Killing a Musk-Bull (1835)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 2 - Title Page (1851)
The North Pole - Crossing a Lead on an Ice-Cake as a Ferry Boat (1910)
The North Pole - Eskimo Dogs of the Expeditions (246 in all) on Small Islands, Etah, Fjord (1910)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Chart Drawn by the Natives (1835)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Remarkable Appearance in the Sky Always Opposite the Sun, Port Leopold (1850)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - New Theory of the Aurora by Sir John Ross (1835)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Great Jet of Steam on the Sulphur Mountains (1811)
Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition - Front Cover (1879)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - North-East Cape of America and Part of Leopold Island (1850)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Kutchin Warrior and His Wife (1851)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Back Cover (1850)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Copeland Islands and Sheriff's Harbour (1835)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings VIII (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Cape Byam Martin, Possession Mount, and Cape Fanshaw, discovered Sept 1st, 1818 by H.M.S Isabella (1819)
The North Pole - Stellar Projection Showing the Relation of the Polar Sea to the Various Continents (1910)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1872)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Title Page (1811)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Book Display (1835)
A Voyage of Discovery - [left] Marshuik. [right] Meigack. Arctic Highlanders, Natives of Lat. 77 North Long. 65 West. (1819)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Tiroler Fjord (1873)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Back Cover (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Mount Hekla from Odde (1811)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser Franz Josephs Fjord mit der Payerspitze (1873)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XIII (1855)
The North Pole - The National Geographic Magazine Map of the North Pole Regions (1907) (1910)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Fossil Leaf (1851)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Manner of Making a Resting Place on a Winters Night. March 15th, 1820 (1823)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Back Cover (1913)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XII (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - New Geyser (1811)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Preparing an Encampment on the Barren Grounds Gathering Tripe de Roche. Sept. 16 (1823)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of Northumberland South, Prince Albert Island (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Crews of the Isabella and Alexander, Sawing a passage through the Ice. (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Andrew Ross Island (1835)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Snowflake II (1855)
Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition - Das Verlassen des Eises Gezeichnet von Ed Orel (1879)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Portrait of Sir John Ross (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Interior of a Cree Indian Tent. March 25th, 1820 (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Marten Lake, 1820 (1823)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Konig Wilhelms Land (1873)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Lady Melville's Lake and Dundas Mountains (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Shulanina, Tullachiu and Tirikshiu (1835)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Prince Regent's Inlet (1850)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Title Page (1873)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - The <i>Victory's</i> Crew Saved by the <I>Isabella</i> (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Expedition Passing Through Point Lata on the Ice. June 25, 1821 (1823)
A Voyage of Discovery - A General Chart Shewing the Track and Discoveries of H.M. Ships Isabella & Alexander to Davis's Straits & Baffin's Bay (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XI (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Direction Signals Where Obstacles Intervene (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - View from Morgan's Rocks of the Hill in Hill River. Sept. 19, 1819 (1823)
A Voyage of Discovery - A Sledge Dog of the Arctic Highlander of Lat. 77. N. (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Konyaroklick or Bald Head and Neweetioke (1835)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Fiord near Uppernavik (1850)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Book Display (1835)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Reikiavik (1811)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coburg Bay, Cape Leopold & Princess Charlottes Monument (1819)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - View of the Arctic Sea from the Mouth of the Copper Mine River (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Natural Arch on the Coast Near Stappen (1811)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Expedition Landing in a Storm. Aug. 21, 1821 (1823)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [Aug-Sept] (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Exmouth Island (1855)
Arctic Tides - Title Page (1911)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - View of the Geyser When Empty, Immediately After an Eruption (1811)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - A Chart of the Discoveries and Route of the Northern Land Expedition (1823)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Nimna Himna, called by the men
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Title Page (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Taking Possession (1835)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XIV (1855)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Konigin-Augusta-Thal (1873)
The North Pole - Title Page (1910)
The North Pole - Back Cover (1910)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - 1st Communication (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Hibluna (1835)
A Voyage of Discovery - Kallie, a Woman of Greenland. Native of Oppernivick. Lat. 73 N. an inhabitant of N.E. Bay. (1819)
Gateways to the Pole - Title Page (1872)

Related Maps

Map Name
A Voyage of Discovery - A General Chart Shewing the Track and Discoveries of H.M. Ships Isabella and Fury (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Plan of Part of Baffin's Bay (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Track of H.M. Ships Isabella and Alexander (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [May-Oct] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [June-July] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [Aug-Sept] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [I] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [II] (1819)
Shores of the Polar Sea - Sketch Map of the Expedition (1878)
The North Pole - North Pole Regions (1910)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of Northumberland South, Prince Albert Island (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of the Port of Lievely, Greenland (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Chart of the Discoveries in the Arctic Sea from Behring Strait to Baffins Bay 1819-1854 (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from York Factory to Cumberland House (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from Isle a la Cross to Fort Providence (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - An Outline to Shew the Connected Discoveries of Captains Ross, Parry and Franklin (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - A Chart of the Discoveries and Route of the Northern Land Expedition (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of Iceland (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of the Southwest Coast of Iceland (1811)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Map of the Faroe Islands (1855)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Chart of the Northwest Passage Showing the Route of the Investigator (1854)
Arctic Tides - Cotidal Lines for the Arctic Regions (1911)
Arctic Exploration with an Account of Nicholas of Lynn - Mercator's Map of the World A.D. 1569 (1881)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1869)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1872)
Gateways to the Pole - Circumpolar Map Exhibiting the Inter-Oceanic Circulation (1872)
The Threshold of the Unknown Region - Map of the European Polar Sea (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Originalkarte der Pendulum Inseln (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ubersichtskarte des nordlichen Theiles von Ostgronland (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser Franz-Josephs Fjord (1873)
Description of Summer and Winter Views of the Polar Regions - View of the Polar Regions (1850)
Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia - Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia (1843)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 - Map of the World Illustrating B. Seeman's Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S Herald (1853)
Papers and Despatches Relating to the Arctic Searching Expeditions - Polar Chart to Illustrate A. Petermann's Papers on the Arctic Regions (1852)
A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia - Map Illustrating Capt. A. H. Markham's Voyage in the Arctic - 1873 (1874)
The Dutch in the Arctic Seas - Map of the North Polar Region (1878)
The Barents Relics Recovered in the Summer of 1876 by C. L. W. Gardiner - Map of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Showing the Track of Mr. Chas L. W. Gardiner's Yacht Glowworm (1877)
Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition - Uebersichts Karte des Arctischen Gebietes Gezeichnet von Karl Weyprecht (1879)

Regions

View All Regions