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Arctic Collection

History Archive - Arctic Collection

The Arctic is the region around the North Pole, covering the area (both ocean and lands) where the characteristic polar conditions of climate, &c., obtain. The Arctic Circle is drawn at 66° 30' N. The Arctic Ocean is part of the ocean within the Arctic Circle. The main rivers flowing into it are the Mackenzie and Black in America, the Obi, Yenesei and Lena in Asia. Its largest islands are Spitzbergen, Wongatz and Nova Zembla in Europe, those of New Siberia in Asia and the Polar archipelago in America.

An expanse of ice of nearly 4,000,000 square miles extends during an eight-months winter round the pole, and even in summer the temperature is still at the freezing point. From this region come the icebergs which in spring and summer drift into the Atlantic. In the last three hundred years many voyages have been made to make discoveries in this region or to find a passage through it, but we know almost nothing about it. Besides the great dangers of ice, the sailor, often blinded by fogs and snow, has to face without guide or sea-room, storms, tides and currents of unknown waters. The highest point ever reached was by Lieutenant Peary, who in 1906 reached a point 206 miles distant from the north pole.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Critical Position of H.M.S. Investigator on the North-Coast of Baring Island, August 20th 1851 (1854)
A Voyage of Discovery - Gardie House, the Residence of William Mouat Esq. (1819)
The North Pole - Back Cover (1910)
The North Pole - Front Cover (1910)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Myling Head as Seen from the South. 8100 Feet High (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Summit of Heklaas seen from Naifurholt (1811)
A Voyage of Discovery - Island of Disco and Icebergs (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Ikmalick and Apelagliu (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Poyettak, Kakikakiu and Aknalua (1835)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 2 - The Port of Petropaulowski (1853)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Layout of Somerset House (1835)
A Voyage of Discovery - [left] Marshuik. [right] Meigack. Arctic Highlanders, Natives of Lat. 77 North Long. 65 West. (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Petoowack. Formation of an Iceberg (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Track of H.M. Ships Isabella and Alexander (1819)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Termination of the Cliffs, near Whaler Point, Port Leopold (1850)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Fossil Leaf (1851)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings IV (1855)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Front Cover (1854)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings III (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XIV (1855)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - First Discovery of Land by H.M.S. Investigator, September 6th 1850 (1854)
A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin - Isabel Entering the Polar Sea through Smith's Sound, Midnight (1853)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Crystal Palace Winter Quarters, 1853-4 (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Views of Land in Davis Strait and Baffin's Bay (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Alarum Tide Guage (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings V (1855)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 - Title Page (1853)
A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin - Dangerous Position of the Isabel Caught in the Lee Pack (1853)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Title Page (1913)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - An Icelandic Lady in Her Bridal Dress (1811)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Back Cover (1855)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Back Cover (1855)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Plan of an Icelandic House (1811)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Direction Signals Where Obstacles Intervene (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from Isle a la Crosse to Fort Providence (1823)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Title Page (1835)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Title Page (1811)
The North Pole - The Five flags at the Pole (1910)
A Voyage of Discovery - First Communications with the Natives of Prince Regents Bay, as Drawn by John Sackheouse, and Presented to Capt. Ross, Augt. 10, 1818. (1819)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Dance of the Kutcha-Kutchin (1851)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Front Cover (1913)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Geology Diagrams (1811)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Front Cover (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Eyafialla Iokul from Hliderende (1811)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Ground Plan of an Arctic Dwelling (1823)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Bold Headland on Baring Island (1854)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ubersichtskarte des nordlichen Theiles von Ostgronland (1873)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Chart of the Discoveries in the Arctic Sea (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Natural History Drawings of Fish II (1823)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of Northumberland South, Prince Albert Island (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Back Cover (1811)
A Voyage of Discovery - Head of a White Bear (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Graham's Valley (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Natural History Drawings of Plants I (1823)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Christian's Monument (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings II (1835)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Eruption of the Geyser (1811)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings VI (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - A Voyage of Discovery (1819) - Title Page (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Manellia and Adelik (1835)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Noon in Mid-Winter (1850)
A Voyage of Discovery - A Sledge Dog of the Arctic Highlander of Lat. 77. N. (1819)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Natural History Drawings of Fish I (1823)
The North Pole - Crossing a Lead on an Ice-Cake as a Ferry Boat (1910)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Icelandic House Diagram (1811)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Kutchin Hunters (1851)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Cauldron of Boiling Mud on the Sulphur Mountains (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Reikiavik (1811)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Snowflake I (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Plan and Section of the Basin of the Great Geyser (1811)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Front Cover (1823)
A Voyage of Discovery - Crimson Cliffs. A View of the Coloured Snow in Lat. 76. 25 N. & Long. 68. W. (1819)
The North Pole - Illumination of the Roosevelt in Winter Quarters on a Moonlit Night Showing the Ice Pressure Close to the Ship (1910)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Mount Hekla from the South (1811)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Chart of the Northwest Passage Showing the Route of the Investigator (1854)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 2 - Title Page (1853)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Title Page (1850)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Expedition Encamped at Point Turnagain. Aug. 21, 1821 (1823)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Novel Ferry (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Portrait of a Stone Indian (1823)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Front Cover (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Victoria Harbour (1835)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coburg Bay, Cape Leopold & Princess Charlottes Monument (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Copeland Islands and Sheriff's Harbour (1835)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Eruption of the Great Geyser (1811)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - New Theory of the Aurora by Sir John Ross (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from York Factory to Cumberland House (1823)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - The Hamilton Under Canvass (1855)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Illustrated Title Page (1873)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Keskarrah, a Copper Indian guide and his daughter Green Stockings mending a snow-shoe (1823)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - Fiord near Uppernavik (1850)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [II] (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Snowflake IV (1855)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - The Bivouac, Cape Seppings, Leopold Island (1850)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Saviah, Chief of the Kutcha-Kutchin (1851)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Udlia, Awitigin and Palurak (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Natural History Drawings of Plants III (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Snuff Box (1811)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [May-Oct] (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1855)

Related Maps

Map Name
A Voyage of Discovery - A General Chart Shewing the Track and Discoveries of H.M. Ships Isabella and Fury (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Plan of Part of Baffin's Bay (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Track of H.M. Ships Isabella and Alexander (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [May-Oct] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [June-July] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [Aug-Sept] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [I] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [II] (1819)
Shores of the Polar Sea - Sketch Map of the Expedition (1878)
The North Pole - North Pole Regions (1910)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of Northumberland South, Prince Albert Island (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of the Port of Lievely, Greenland (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Chart of the Discoveries in the Arctic Sea from Behring Strait to Baffins Bay 1819-1854 (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from York Factory to Cumberland House (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from Isle a la Cross to Fort Providence (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - An Outline to Shew the Connected Discoveries of Captains Ross, Parry and Franklin (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - A Chart of the Discoveries and Route of the Northern Land Expedition (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of Iceland (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of the Southwest Coast of Iceland (1811)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Map of the Faroe Islands (1855)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Chart of the Northwest Passage Showing the Route of the Investigator (1854)
Arctic Tides - Cotidal Lines for the Arctic Regions (1911)
Arctic Exploration with an Account of Nicholas of Lynn - Mercator's Map of the World A.D. 1569 (1881)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1869)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1872)
Gateways to the Pole - Circumpolar Map Exhibiting the Inter-Oceanic Circulation (1872)
The Threshold of the Unknown Region - Map of the European Polar Sea (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Originalkarte der Pendulum Inseln (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ubersichtskarte des nordlichen Theiles von Ostgronland (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser Franz-Josephs Fjord (1873)
Description of Summer and Winter Views of the Polar Regions - View of the Polar Regions (1850)
Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia - Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia (1843)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 - Map of the World Illustrating B. Seeman's Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S Herald (1853)
Papers and Despatches Relating to the Arctic Searching Expeditions - Polar Chart to Illustrate A. Petermann's Papers on the Arctic Regions (1852)
A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia - Map Illustrating Capt. A. H. Markham's Voyage in the Arctic - 1873 (1874)
The Dutch in the Arctic Seas - Map of the North Polar Region (1878)
The Barents Relics Recovered in the Summer of 1876 by C. L. W. Gardiner - Map of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Showing the Track of Mr. Chas L. W. Gardiner's Yacht Glowworm (1877)
Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition - Uebersichts Karte des Arctischen Gebietes Gezeichnet von Karl Weyprecht (1879)

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