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Arctic Collection

History Archive - Arctic Collection

The Arctic is the region around the North Pole, covering the area (both ocean and lands) where the characteristic polar conditions of climate, &c., obtain. The Arctic Circle is drawn at 66° 30' N. The Arctic Ocean is part of the ocean within the Arctic Circle. The main rivers flowing into it are the Mackenzie and Black in America, the Obi, Yenesei and Lena in Asia. Its largest islands are Spitzbergen, Wongatz and Nova Zembla in Europe, those of New Siberia in Asia and the Polar archipelago in America.

An expanse of ice of nearly 4,000,000 square miles extends during an eight-months winter round the pole, and even in summer the temperature is still at the freezing point. From this region come the icebergs which in spring and summer drift into the Atlantic. In the last three hundred years many voyages have been made to make discoveries in this region or to find a passage through it, but we know almost nothing about it. Besides the great dangers of ice, the sailor, often blinded by fogs and snow, has to face without guide or sea-room, storms, tides and currents of unknown waters. The highest point ever reached was by Lieutenant Peary, who in 1906 reached a point 206 miles distant from the north pole.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
A Voyage of Discovery - Head of a White Bear (1819)
Gateways to the Pole - Circumpolar Map Exhibiting the Inter-Oceanic Circulation (1872)
The North Pole - Stellar Projection Showing the Relation of the Polar Sea to the Various Continents (1910)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Back Cover (1913)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Back Cover (1835)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ankunft der Hansabote in der Missionsstation Friedrichsthal (1873)
Ten Coloured Views Taken During the Arctic Expedition - The Bivouac, Cape Seppings, Leopold Island (1850)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Cape Margaret (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1835)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Title Page (1851)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - A Chart of the Discoveries and Route of the Northern Land Expedition (1823)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - First Discovery of Land by H.M.S. Investigator, September 6th 1850 (1854)
The North Pole - Illumination of the Roosevelt in Winter Quarters on a Moonlit Night Showing the Ice Pressure Close to the Ship (1910)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XIII (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Passage Through the Ice - June 16th, 1818 (1819)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 2 - Cree Wigwams in Summer (1851)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Preparing an Encampment on the Barren Grounds Gathering Tripe de Roche. Sept. 16 (1823)
A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin - [Panorama of] Prince of Wales Mountains, Cape Albert, Cape Fred. VII, Crystal Palace Cliffs and Cape Alexander (1853)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Natural History Drawings of Plants I (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Back Cover (1811)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [II] (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Extraordinary Dyke, Point Hogarth (1855)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Fossil Leaves (1851)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Map of Victoria Harbour (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Copeland Islands and Sheriff's Harbour (1835)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Title Page (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [I] (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Manellia and Adelik (1835)
The North Pole - A Typical Example of the Difficulties of Working Sledges Over a Pressure Bridge (1910)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Kutcha-Kutchin Warrior (1851)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Land and Refraction Diagram (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - North Hendon (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from Isle a la Crosse to Fort Providence (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Manner of Making a Resting Place on a Winters Night. March 15th, 1820 (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Plan and Section of the Basin of the Great Geyser (1811)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - <i>Victory</i> (1835)
A Voyage of Discovery - Crimson Cliffs. A View of the Coloured Snow in Lat. 76. 25 N. & Long. 68. W. (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Kemig (1835)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XII (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings II (1855)
The North Pole - The National Geographic Magazine Map of the North Pole Regions (1907) (1910)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings IX (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Winter Travelling on Great Slave Lake (1823)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Konyaroklick or Bald Head and Neweetioke (1835)
The North Pole - Title Page (1910)
A Voyage of Discovery - Island of Disco and Icebergs (1819)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - The White Wolf and a View of the Dog Rib Rock (1823)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1835)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Tiroler Fjord (1873)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Front Cover (1854)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Myling Head as Seen from the South. 8100 Feet High (1855)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser Franz Josephs Fjord mit der Payerspitze (1873)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Ground Plan of an Arctic Dwelling (1823)
A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin - Back Cover (1853)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Map of Elizabeth Harbour (1835)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Back Cover (1823)
Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal - Cape Hotham (1852)
A Voyage of Discovery - View of the Islands in Wolstenholme Sound (1819)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1855)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coburg Bay, Cape Leopold & Princess Charlottes Monument (1819)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser-Franz-Josephs-Fjord und die Petermanns-Spitze (1873)
Arctic Tides - Title Page (1911)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Natural History Drawings XI (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Olafsvik (1811)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Snowflake I (1855)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Eruption of the Great Geyser (1811)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Back Cover (1855)
Gateways to the Pole - Title Page (1872)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Portrait of a Stone Indian (1823)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Passing the Diamonds (1855)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ubersichtskarte des nordlichen Theiles von Ostgronland (1873)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - The Northern Termination of the Island of Kalsoe (1855)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 2 - Hibluna (1835)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Das Teufelsschloss (1873)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - An Icelandic Lady in Her Bridal Dress (1811)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Somerset House, Fury Beach, North Somerset (1835)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Chart Drawn by the Natives (1835)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Duck Shooting in Oomiak (1855)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Title Page (1873)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Portraits of Two Eskumaux Interpreters - Junius and Augustus (1823)
Journal of a Tour in Iceland in the Summer of 1809 - Back Cover (1811)
A Voyage of Discovery - A Bone Sled, Dog Ship, Spear, and Knife of the Arctic Highlanders (1819)
Arctic Searching Expedition Vol. 1 - Kitchen Winter Lodges (1851)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Front Cover (1913)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Krisuvik and the Sulphur Mountains (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Reikiavik (1811)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Astonishing the Natives (1855)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Scene der Schlittenreise nach Norden (1873)
The North Pole and Bradley Land - Title Page (1913)
A Voyage of Discovery - A Bear Plunging into the Sea (1819)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage Vol. 1 - Andrew Ross Island (1835)
The North Pole - Front Cover (1910)
Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal - Map shewing the Track of H.M.S. Pioneer, in search of Sir John Franklin, 1851-1852 (1852)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Plate Illustrating the Fossiliferous Oval (1855)
Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal - Front Cover (1852)
The North Pole - Eskimo Dogs of the Expeditions (246 in all) on Small Islands, Etah, Fjord (1910)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - The Hamilton Under Canvass (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - View from Morgan's Rocks of the Hill in Hill River. Sept. 19, 1819 (1823)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 2 - Snowflake II (1855)

Related Maps

Map Name
A Voyage of Discovery - A General Chart Shewing the Track and Discoveries of H.M. Ships Isabella and Fury (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Plan of Part of Baffin's Bay (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Track of H.M. Ships Isabella and Alexander (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [May-Oct] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [June-July] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Meteorological Register of His Majesty's Ship Isabella [Aug-Sept] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [I] (1819)
A Voyage of Discovery - Coastal Views [II] (1819)
Shores of the Polar Sea - Sketch Map of the Expedition (1878)
The North Pole - North Pole Regions (1910)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of Northumberland South, Prince Albert Island (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Plan of the Port of Lievely, Greenland (1855)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages Vol. 1 - Chart of the Discoveries in the Arctic Sea from Behring Strait to Baffins Bay 1819-1854 (1855)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from York Factory to Cumberland House (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - Route of the Expedition from Isle a la Cross to Fort Providence (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - An Outline to Shew the Connected Discoveries of Captains Ross, Parry and Franklin (1823)
Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea - A Chart of the Discoveries and Route of the Northern Land Expedition (1823)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of Iceland (1811)
Travels in the Island of Iceland - Map of the Southwest Coast of Iceland (1811)
A Narrative of the Cruise of the Yacht Maria - Map of the Faroe Islands (1855)
A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator - Chart of the Northwest Passage Showing the Route of the Investigator (1854)
Arctic Tides - Cotidal Lines for the Arctic Regions (1911)
Arctic Exploration with an Account of Nicholas of Lynn - Mercator's Map of the World A.D. 1569 (1881)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1869)
Gateways to the Pole - Map of the World Showing the Principal Surface Currents of the Ocean (1872)
Gateways to the Pole - Circumpolar Map Exhibiting the Inter-Oceanic Circulation (1872)
The Threshold of the Unknown Region - Map of the European Polar Sea (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Originalkarte der Pendulum Inseln (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Ubersichtskarte des nordlichen Theiles von Ostgronland (1873)
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt Vol. 1 - Kaiser Franz-Josephs Fjord (1873)
Description of Summer and Winter Views of the Polar Regions - View of the Polar Regions (1850)
Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia - Description of a View of the Continent of Boothia (1843)
Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Herald Vol. 1 - Map of the World Illustrating B. Seeman's Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S Herald (1853)
Papers and Despatches Relating to the Arctic Searching Expeditions - Polar Chart to Illustrate A. Petermann's Papers on the Arctic Regions (1852)
A Whaling Cruise to Baffin's Bay and the Gulf of Boothia - Map Illustrating Capt. A. H. Markham's Voyage in the Arctic - 1873 (1874)
The Dutch in the Arctic Seas - Map of the North Polar Region (1878)
The Barents Relics Recovered in the Summer of 1876 by C. L. W. Gardiner - Map of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Showing the Track of Mr. Chas L. W. Gardiner's Yacht Glowworm (1877)
Oesterr.-Ungar. Arktische Expedition - Uebersichts Karte des Arctischen Gebietes Gezeichnet von Karl Weyprecht (1879)

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