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Burma

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Burma Collection

History Archive - Burma Collection

Burma, presently known as Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. Burma is the largest of the mainland Southeast Asian states.

Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged.

In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia.[10] The early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Burma was once a province of British India, including the former kingdom of independent Burma, as well as British Burma. It was acquired by the British Indian government in the two wars of 1826 and 1852. It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886. Myanmar was granted independence in 1948, as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'tat in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party.

Geography

The province lies to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of country extending from the Pakchan river in 9° 55' north latitude to the Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and 100th degrees of east longitude. The extreme length from north to south is almost 1200 m., and the broadest part, which is in about latitude 21° north, is 575 m. from east to west.

On the N. it is bounded by the dependent state of Manipur, by the Mishmi hills, and by portions of Chinese territory; on the E. by the Chinese Shan States, portions of the province of Yunnan, the French province of Indo-China, and the Siamese Shan, or Lao States and Siam; on the S. by the Siamese Malay States and the Bay of Bengal; and on the W. by the Bay of Bengal and Chittagong. The coast-line from Taknaf, the mouth of the Naaf, in the Akyab district on the north, to the estuary of the Pakchan at Maliwun on the south, is about 1200 m. The total area of the province is estimated at 238,738 sq.m., of which Burma proper occupies 168,573 sq.m., the Chin hills 10,250 sq.m., and the Shan States, which comprise the whole of the eastern portion of the province, some 59,915 sq.m.

History

It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic P?li title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents. The royal history traces the lineage of the kings to the ancient Buddhist monarchs of India. This no doubt is fabulous, but it is hard to say how early communication with Gangetic India began.

From the 11th to the 13th century the old Burman empire was at the height of its power, and to this period belong the splendid remains of architecture at Pagan. The city and the dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Mongol) invasion (1284 A.D.) in the reign of Kublai Khan. After that the empire fell to a low ebb, and Central Burma was often subject to Shan dynasties. In the early part of the 16th century the Burmese princes of Toungoo, in the north-east of Pegu, began to rise to power, and established a dynasty which at one time held possession of Pegu, Ava and Arakan.

They made their capital at Pegu, and to this dynasty belong the gorgeous descriptions of some of the travelers of the 16th century. Their wars exhausted the country, and before the end of the century it was in the greatest decay. A new dynasty arose in Ava, which subdued Pegu, and maintained their supremacy throughout the 17th and during the first forty years of the 18th century. The Peguans or Talaings then revolted, and having taken the capital Ava, and made the king prisoner, reduced the whole country to submission. Alompra, left by the conqueror in charge of the village of Mtshobo, planned the deliverance of his country. He attacked the Peguans at first with small detachments; but when his forces increased, he suddenly advanced, and took possession of the capital in the autumn of 1753.

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Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
Burma, Painted and Described - The Goekteik Gorge (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - View of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon and Scenery adjacent to the Westward of the Great Road (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - Express Steamer passing Sagaing (1905)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - Entrance to a Burmese Village (1908)
Burma, Painted and Described - Ava (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Bottom of Goekteik Gorge (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - "Pya-shikoh" (from a Burmese Painting) (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Home of the Peacock (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Rangoon. The Storming of one of the principal Stockades on its inside on the 8th of July 1824 (1826)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - N.E. View of Guadapalen Temple at Pagan (1858)
Views in the Burman Empire - Melloon from the British Position (1831)
Burma, Painted and Described - Bhamo from the Fort (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - The Principal approach to the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - Waiting for the Steamer - Early Morning (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - A Burmese Hamlet (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Scene from the Upper Terrace of the Great Pagoda at Rangoon, to the South East (1826)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Heads of Burmese Notables (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Old Pagan (1905)
Views in the Burman Empire - View from the West face of the Great Pagoda, Prome (1831)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - View of the Oil Wells at Yenangyoung (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - A Forest Tai (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - The River at Prome - Morning Mists rising (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Jungle at Delanchoon (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - On the Sterne River (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Back Cover (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - In the Second Defile of the Irrawaddy (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Mining Camp at "The Rapids" (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Loading Teak at Kokogon (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Ferry on the Nan-tu River (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Upstream with the Wind (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - On the Kyouk-mee-Choung (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Ananda Temple - Pagan (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - This New Map of Burma and the Regions Adjacent is Inscribed to Sir Roderick I. Murchison (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Front Cover (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Elephants clearing a "Pone" of Logs at Kokogon (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - The Harbour of Port Cornwallis, Island of Great Andaman, with the Fleet getting under Weigh for Rangoon (1826)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - The Queen's Golden Monastery, Mandalay (1908)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - The Hairy Woman (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Jungle on the Lashio Line (1905)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - The Irrawaddy (1908)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Section of the Ananda Temple at Pagan (1858)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - The attempt of the Birmans to retake the Stockades of Dalla on the night of the 6th September 1824 (1826)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - The Palace at Amarapoor with the White Elephant (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Ascent to the Shwe Dagon (1905)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - In the Depths of the Forest (1908)
Burma, Painted and Described - Ma-Hla-Byu (Miss Pretty and Fair) (1905)
Views in the Burman Empire - North face of the Great Pagoda, Prome (1831)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Scene upon the Terrace of the Great Dagon Pagoda at Rangoon taken near the Great Bell (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - "Domestic Felicity" (from a Burmese Painting) (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - A Jungle Stream (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Architectural Details of Remains at Pagan (1858)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - The Burmese Drama (1858)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - View of the Great Dagon Pagoda and adjacent Scenery taken on the Eastern Road from Rangoon (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - A Portico of the Palace - Mandalay (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Village of Min-byin (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - S.E. View of Dhamayangyee Temple at Pagan (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Entrance to the Village of Kyet-thoung-doung (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Rafting down the Nan-tu River (1905)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - At the Well (1908)
Burma, Painted and Described - "The Centre of the Universe" - Mandalay (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Portico of the Queen's Golden Monastery-Mandalay (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Waterpots for the Travellers Refreshment, a Burmese Charity (1858)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Rangoon. The position of part of the Army previous to attacking the Stockades on the 8th of July 1824 (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - Net Fishing on the Irrawaddy (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Shwe Dagon from the Bahan Tank (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Plan of the Irawadee River from Amarapura to Tsampenago (1858)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - View of Part of the Small Temple called Sem-Bvo-Koo at Pagan (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Entrance to the Kuthodau-Mandalay (1905)
Views in the Burman Empire - Title Page Wrapper (1831)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Front Cover (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Pagoda Steps, Rangoon (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Elevation of the Ananda Temple at Pagan (1858)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - Scene upon the Eastern Road from Rangoon looking towards the South (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - Prayer on the Pagoda Platform - Prome (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - The King (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - Fall on the Myit-nge River (1905)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - Title Page (1908)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Man-pwe Falls from the Railway Company's Bungalow (1905)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - The Conflagration of Dalla on the Tangoon River (1826)
Burma, Painted and Described - A Forest Glade (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Dawn in the Forest (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - View of the Myit-Nge or Little River and part of the Valley of the Irawadee from the Mountain called Mya Liet (1858)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - Carved Work of One of the Royal Monasteries (1858)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - An Attempt to Represent the Historical Geography of the Burmese Countries at Several Epochs (1858)
Burma, Painted and Described - The Kuthodau - Mandalay (1905)
Views in the Burman Empire - Rangoon from the Anchorage (1831)
Burma, Painted and Described - Market-Place at Taungdwingyi (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Map of Burma (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - The Audience Hall amd Reception of the Envoy (1858)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - The Storming of the Lesser Stockade at Kemmendine near Rangoon on the 10th of June 1824 (1826)
Peeps at Many Lands: Burma - Front Cover - Shrine on the Platform of the Shwe Dagon Pagoda (1908)
Burma, Painted and Described - A Street in Taungdwingyi (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Entrance to Bazaar at the Shwe Dagon (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Landing-Ghaut at Prome - Low River (1905)
Views in the Burman Empire - Prome, from the South heights (1831)
Burma, Painted and Described - Beauty and the Beast (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - Scrub Jungle (1905)
Burma, Painted and Described - In the Bazaar - Bhamo (1905)
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - View of the Great Pagoda at Mengoon as Shattered by the Earthquake of 1839 (1858)
Eighteen Views taken at and near Rangoon - The Storming of the Fort of Syriam by a combined force of Sailors, and European & Native Troops, on the 5th August 1824 (1826)

Related Maps

Map Name
A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava - This New Map of Burma and the Regions Adjacent is Inscribed to Sir Roderick I. Murchison (1858)

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