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Canada Collection

History Archive - Canada Collection

Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the United States. Its boundary on the south is the parallel of latitude 49&176;, between the Pacific Ocean and Lake-of-the-Woods, then a chain of small lakes and rivers eastward to the mouth of Pigeon river on the north-west side of Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers to Cornwall, on the St Lawrence.

From this eastward to the state of Maine the boundary is an artificial line nearly corresponding to lat. 45&176;; then an irregular line partly determined by watersheds and rivers divides Canada from Maine, coming out on the Bay of Fundy. The western boundary is the Pacific on the south, an irregular line a few miles inland from the coast along the "pan handle" of Alaska to Mount St Elias, and the meridian of 141&176; to the Arctic Ocean. A somewhat similar relationship cuts off Canada from the Atlantic on the east, the north-eastern coast of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland.

The first few decades of the period of British rule were lean years indeed so far as native literature is concerned. This period of unrest gave birth to little beyond a flood of political pamphlets, of no present value save as material for the historian. We may perhaps except the able though thoroughly partisan writings of Sir John Beverley Robinson and Bishop Strachan on the one side, and Robert Fleming Gourlay and William Lyon Mackenzie on the other.

In the far West, however, a little group of adventurous fur-traders, of whom Sir Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson, Alexander Henry and Daniel Williams Harmon may be taken as conspicuous types, were unfolding the vast expanse of the future dominion. They were men of action, not of words, and had no thought of literary fame, but their absorbingly interesting journals are none the less an essential part of the literature of the country.

Barring the work of Francis Parkman, who was not a Canadian, no history of the first rank has yet been written in or of Canada. Canadian historians have not merely lacked so far the genius for really great historical work, but they have lacked the point of view; they have stood too close to their subject to get the true perspective. At the same time they have brought together invaluable material for the great historian of the future.

Robert Christie's History of Lower Canada (1848-1854) was the first serious attempt to deal with the period of British rule. William Kingsford's (1819-1898) ambitious work, in ten volumes, comes down like Christie's to the Union of 1841, but goes back to the very beginnings of Canadian history. In the main it is impartial and accurate, but the style is heavy and sometimes slovenly. J. C. Dent's (1841-1888) Last Forty Years (1880) is practically a continuation of Kingsford.

Dent also wrote an interesting though one-sided account of the rebellion of 1837. Histories of the maritime provinces have been written by Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Beamish Murdoch and James Hannay. Haliburton's is much the best of the three. The brief but stirring history of western Canada has been told by Alexander Begg (1840-1898); and George Bryce (b. 1844) and Beckles Willson (b. 1869) have written the story of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Much scholarship and research have been devoted to local and special historical subjects, a notable example of which is Arthur Doughty's exhaustive work on the siege of Quebec. J. McMullen (b. 1820), Charles Roberts (b. 1860) and Sir John Bourinot (1837-1902) have written brief and popular histories, covering the whole field of Canadian history more or less adequately. Alpheus Todd's (1821-1884) Parliamentary Government in England (1867-1869) and Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies (1880) are standard works, as is also Bourinot's Parliamentary Procedure and Practice (1884).

References:

1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 5. 142-168

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Canada - A Trip to Newfoundland A Trip to Newfoundland 1855
Canada - Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 2 Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 2 1842
Canada - Hunter's Ottawa Scenery Hunter's Ottawa Scenery 1855
Canada - Canada, Painted and Described Canada, Painted and Described 1907
Canada - Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 1865
Canada - Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919 1964
Canada - After Icebergs with a Painter After Icebergs with a Painter 1861
Canada - The Fair Dominion The Fair Dominion 1911
Canada - Sketches in New Brunswick Sketches in New Brunswick 1836
Canada - Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's Bay in His Majesty's Ship Rosamond 1817
Canada - Notes of a Sporting Expedition in the Far West of Canada Notes of a Sporting Expedition in the Far West of Canada 1898
Canada - Sport, Travel, and Adventure in Newfoundland and the West Indies Sport, Travel, and Adventure in Newfoundland and the West Indies 1885
Canada - Pioneers in Canada Pioneers in Canada 1912
Canada - Forest Life in Acadie Forest Life in Acadie 1869
Canada - Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America 1859
Canada - The Falls of Niagara The Falls of Niagara 1895
Canada - Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 1863
Canada - Art & War; Canadian War Memorials Art & War; Canadian War Memorials 1919
Canada - Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 1 Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 1 1813
Canada - Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 1865
Canada - Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 1860
Canada - Sketches on the Nipisaguit Sketches on the Nipisaguit 1860
Canada - Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada 1840
Canada - Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador 1858
Canada - Six Perspective Views on Belle Isle Six Perspective Views on Belle Isle 1763
Canada - Travels Through the Canadas Travels Through the Canadas 1807
Canada - Journal of a Voyage from Okkak Journal of a Voyage from Okkak 1814
Canada - L'Amerique du Nord Pittoresque L'Amerique du Nord Pittoresque 1880
Canada - Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 2 Travels Through Canada, and the United States Vol. 2 1813
Canada - Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosamond to Newfoundland 1818
Canada - Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales 1860
Canada - The Canadian Lake Region The Canadian Lake Region 1914
Canada - Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 1863
Canada - Upper Canada Sketches Upper Canada Sketches 1898
Canada - Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 1860
Canada - Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 1 Excursions in and about Newfoundland Vol. 1 1842

Related Images

Image Name
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Almost an Accident (1863)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Wigwam, an Ojibway Half-Breed (1860)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Horse-race (1859)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - Title Page (1858)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 - Valley of the Souris (1860)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - Battle Harbour [I] (1858)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Caribou Lake Near the Table Land (1863)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1863)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Geological Map of a Part of Rupert's Land (1860)
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - Junction of the Gatineau with the Ottawa River, Canada (1855)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 - Confluence of the Little Souris and the Assinniboine (1860)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Kingston, Lake Ontario (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - The Chaudiere Bridge (Near Quebec) (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - The Rideau Canal, Bytown (1865)
Canada, Painted and Described - The Citadel, Quebec (1907)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Group of Buffaloes (1859)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Montreal from the Prince's Balcony (1860)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Point Pleasant - Halifax Harbour (1860)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - General View of the North Atlantic with Part of the Coasts of Europe and North America (1860)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - The Conjuror in his Vapour Bath (1863)
Canada, Painted and Described - Indians in the Olden Time (1907)
Pioneers in Canada - The Upper Waters of the Fraser River (1912)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Georgeville (1865)
Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada - Attack on Saint-Charles (1840)
Canada, Painted and Described - The Ottawa at Vaudreuil (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - The Owls Head (Lake Memphremagog) (1865)
Upper Canada Sketches - Front Cover (1898)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1860)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Portrait of an Esquimaux (1859)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - The Market Place, Quebec (1865)
Canada, Painted and Described - Sunset on Canoe Lake, Parry Sound (1907)
Pioneers in Canada - Part of the Coast Region of British Columbia (1912)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Wellington, on Lake Ontario (Fishing Nets) (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Coburg (1865)
Pioneers in Canada - Type of Ship Sailed in by the English or French Pioneers in the Sixteenth Century (1912)
Canada, Painted and Described - Van Horne Range (Evening) (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Outlet of Lake Memphremagog (1865)
Canada, Painted and Described - Back Country Farmyard, Winter (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Quebec, from the opposite shore of the St. Laurence (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Lake beneath the Owls-head Mountain (Eastern Townships) (1865)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Nasquapees - Otelne,
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - The Chasm, Chaudiere Falls, Ottawa River, Canada (1855)
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - View from Barrack Hill looking down the Ottawa, Ottawa City, Canada (1855)
Canada, Painted and Described - Fall of the Year, Nova Scotia (1907)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Portrait of Cul-chil-lum with Medicine Cap (1859)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Cutting out a Road (1863)
Canada, Painted and Described - Mountain Sheep at Home (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Canoe building at Papper's Island (1865)
Upper Canada Sketches - Back Cover (1898)
The Fair Dominion - The Devil's Fingers. Rocky Mountains (1911)
Canada, Painted and Described - In Sherbrooke, Eastern Townships, Quebec (1907)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - Cremilliere (1858)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - The St. Laurence, at Montreal (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Raft in a Squall, on Lake St. Peter (1865)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Montagnais Camp on One of the Mingan Islands (1863)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Book Display (1863)
Canada, Painted and Described - Niagara Falls (1907)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Back Cover (1860)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - Quidi Vidi (1858)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Cape Diamond (from Spencer Wood) (1860)
Sketches in New Brunswick - Tavern at Stanley (1836)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Locks on the Rideau Canal (near Bytown) (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Scene among the Thousand Isles (1865)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - Eagle River Fishery (1858)
The Fair Dominion - Lake Louise. Laggan. Alberta (1911)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Montmorency Bridge (1865)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Front Cover (1860)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - View across the boundary line (from the Sugar-loaf) (1865)
Canada, Painted and Described - Pitt River and Golden Ear Mountains (1907)
The Fair Dominion - In the Valley of the Ten Peaks. Rocky Mountains (1911)
The Fair Dominion - Chateau Frontenac and Dufferin Terrace. Night. Quebec (1911)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - St. John's - Richlieu River (1865)
Pioneers in Canada - Alexander Henry the Elder (1912)
Pioneers in Canada - Back Cover (1912)
Canada, Painted and Described - Buffalo Feeding in Winter (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Scene in the bay of Annapolis (1865)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - Cartwright (1858)
Canada, Painted and Described - End of Lake Louise, and Mount Aberdeen (1907)
Canada, Painted and Described - Quebec, from Point Lewis (1907)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Portrait of Ca-sa-nov (1859)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 - Plan Shewing the Junction of the Quappelle Valley with the Saskatchewan (1860)
Sketches of Newfoundland and Labrador - On Eagle River (1858)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 1 - Ka-Ka-Beka Falls, Kaministiquia River (1860)
Canada, Painted and Described - York Redoubt, and Halifax Harbour (1907)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - An Ojibway Squaw with Papoose (1860)
Sketches in New Brunswick - The Mill-Dam at Stanley (1836)
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - View of Locks Entrance of Rideau Canal, Ottawa City, Canada (1855)
Pioneers in Canada - The Kootenay or Head Stream of the Columbia River (1912)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - The Residence of Judge Haliburton (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Rapids, on the approach to the Village of Cedars (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - The Three Rivers (River St. Laurence) (1865)
Canada, Painted and Described - Sunset on Lake Superior (1907)
Lithographic Views of Military Operations in Canada - Passage of the Richelieu River by Night (1840)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Bear Lake (1863)
Canada, Painted and Described - North Shore, Lake Superior (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - View from the Citadel at Kingston (1865)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 2 - Interior of the Cathedral, Montreal (1865)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Portrait of Kee-akee-ka-saa-ka-wow with Pipe-stem (1859)
Canada, Painted and Described - Mount Temple, with Wild Goats Feeding (1907)
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Toronto (1865)

Related Maps

Map Name
Canadian Scenery Illustrated: Volume 1 - Map of Canada (1865)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Map of the Country from Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean (1860)
Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition Vol. 2 - Geological Profiles of Routes Along the Expedition (1860)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 1 - Map of the River Moisie and Adjoining Country (1863)
Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula Vol. 2 - Map of the Peninsula of Labrador (1863)
Hunter's Ottawa Scenery - Map of Railroad Routs to the City of Ottawa (1855)
Canada, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland (1907)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - Map of the Route of H.R.H., the Prince of Wales through British North America (1860)
Journal of the Progress of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales - General View of the North Atlantic with Part of the Coasts of Europe and North America (1860)
Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America - Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane's Travels (1859)

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