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Kashmir Collection

History Archive - Kashmir Collection

Kashmir, or Cashmere, a native state of India, including much of the Himalayan mountain system to the north of the Punjab.

It has been fabled in song for its beauty (e.g. in Moores Lalla Rookh), and is the chief health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier. The proper name of the state is Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmir is bounded on the north by some petty hills chiefships and by the Karakoram mountains; on the east by Tibet; and on the south and west by the Punjab and North-West Frontier provinces. The remainder of the state consists of uninhabited mountains, and its only really important possessions are the districts of Jammu and Kashmir.

Its territories in the early 20th century comprised the provinces of Jammu (including the jagir of Punch), Kashmir, Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit; the Shin states of Yaghistan, of which the most important are Chilas, Darel and Tangir, are nominally subordinate to it, and the two former paid a tribute of gold dust.

Jammu

Jammu, or Jummoo, the capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India, on the river Tavi (Ta-wi), a tributary of the Chenab. Pop. (1901), 36,130. The town and palace stand upon the right bank of the river; the fort overhangs the left bank at an elevation of 150 ft. above the stream. The lofty whitened walls of the palace and citadel present a striking appearance from the surrounding country.

Extensive pleasure grounds and ruins of great size attest the former prosperity of the city when it was the seat of a Rajput dynasty whose dominions extended into the plains and included the modern district of Sialkot. It was afterwards conquered by the Sikhs, and formed part of Ranjit Singhs dominions. After his death it was acquired by Gulab Singh as the nucleus of his dominions, to which the British added Kashmir in 1846. It is connected with Sialkot in the Punjab by a railway 16 m. long. In 1898 the town was devastated by a fire, which destroyed most of the public offices.

The state of Jammu proper, as opposed to Kashmir, consists of a submontane tract, forming the upper basin of the Chenab. Pop. (1901), 1,521,307, showing an increase of 5% in the decade. A land settlement has recently been introduced under British supervision.

History

In the time of Asoka, about 245 B.C., one of the Indian Buddhist missions was sent to Kashmir and Gandhara. After his death Brahmanism revived. Then in the time of the three Kushan princes, Huvish?a, Jushka and Kanishka, who ruled over Kashmir about the beginning of the Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored, though for several centuries the two religions existed together in Kashmir, Hinduism predominating. Yet Kashmir, when Buddhism was gradually losing its hold, continued to send Buddhist teachers to other lands. In this Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of the Christian era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir.

In the 6th and 7th centuries Kashmir was visited by some of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to India. The country is called Shie-mi in the narrative of To Yeng and Sung Yun (578). One of the Chinese travellers of the next century was for a time an elephant-tamer to the king of Kashmir. Hsan Tsang spent two years (631-633) in Kashmir (Kia-chí-mí-lo). He entered by Baramula and left by the Pir Panjal pass. He describes the hill-girt valley, and the abundance of flowers and fruits, and he mentions the tradition about the lake. He found in Kashmir many Buddhists as well as Hindus. In the following century the kings of Kashmir appear to have paid homage and tribute to China, though this is not alluded to in the Kashmir chronicle. Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mahommedan vizier, Amir Shah, who ascended the throne under the name of Shams-ud-din.

Of the Mahommedan rulers mentioned in the Sanskrit chronicles, one, who reigned about the close of the 14th century, has made his name prominent by his active opposition to the Hindu religion, and his destruction of temples. This was Sikandar, known as But-shikan, or the "idol-breaker." It was in his time that India was invaded by Timur, to whom Sikandar made submission and paid tribute. The country fell into the hands of the Moguls in 1588. In the time of Alamgir it passed to Ahmad Shah Durani, on his third invasion of India (1756); and from that time it remained in the hands of Afghans till it was wrested from them by Ranjit Singh, the Sikh monarch of the Punjab, in 1819. Eight Hindu and Sikh governors under Ranjit Singh and his successors were followed by two Mahommedans similarly appointed, the second of whom, Shekh Imam-ud-din, was in charge when the battles of the first Sikh war 1846 brought about new relations between the British Government and the Sikhs.

Gulab Singh, a Dogra Rajput, had from a humble position been raised to high office by Ranjit Singh, who conferred on him the small principality of Jammu. On the final defeat of the Sikhs at Sobraon (February 1846), Gulab Singh was called to take a leading part in arranging conditions of peace. The treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846) sets forth that, the British Government having demanded, in addition to a certain assignment of territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees (1, 1/2 millions sterling), and the Sikh government being unable to pay the whole, the maharaja (Dhulip Singh) cedes, as equivalent for one crore, the hill country belonging to the Punjab between the Beas and the Indus, including Kashmir and Hazara. The governor-general, Sir Henry Hardinge, considered it expedient to make over Kashmir to the Jammu chief, securing his friendship while the British government was administering the Punjab on behalf of the young maharaja.

Gulab Singh was well prepared to make up the payment in default of which Kashmir was ceded to the British; and so, in consideration of his services in restoring peace, his independent sovereignty of the country made over to him was recognized, and he was admitted to a separate treaty. Gulab Singh had already, after several extensions of territory east and west of Jammu, conquered Ladakh (a Buddhist country, and till then subject to Lhasa), and had then annexed Skardo, which was under independent Mahommedan rulers. He had thus by degrees half encircled Kashmir, and by this last addition his possessions attained nearly their present form and extent. Gulab Singh died in 1857, and was succeeded by his son, Ranbir Singh, who died in 1885. The next ruler, Maharaja Partab Singh, G.C.S.I. (b. 1850), immediately on his accession inaugurated the settlement reforms already described. His rule was remarkable for the reassertion of the Kashmir sovereignty over Gilgit (q.v.). Kashmir imperial service troops participated in the Black Mountain expedition of 1891, the Hunza Nagar operations of 1891, and the Tirah campaign of 18971898. The total revenue of the state is about £666,000.

See Drew, Jammu and Kashmir (1875); M. A. Stein, Kalhanas Rajatarangini (1900); W. R. Lawrence, The Valley of Kashmir (1895); Colonel A. Durand, The Making of a Frontier (1899); R. Lydekker, The Geology of the Kashmir and Chamba Territories, Records of the Geological Survey of India, vol. xxii. (1883); J. Duke, Kashmir Handbook (1903).

References:

Thomas Hungerford Holdich, Kashmir, 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 15. pgs. 686-689.

Jammu, 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 15. pg. 149.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
Kashmir, Painted and Described - A Hindu Temple, Srinagar (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - The Land of Roses (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - Ruins of Martand near Islamabad (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Lake Sinsa Nag, Lidar Valley (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [III] (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Summit of Parisnath in Bahar (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Above the Fifth Bridge, Srinagar (1911)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Ancient Jain Temple (1863)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Central Assam and the Brahmaputra Jungles from Ogri Hill near Tezpur (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Magnetic Survey of India and High Asia [I] (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Title Page (1866)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Gunesh (1863)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Ganges near Patna Western Bengal (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Salt Lake Tso Gam in Eastern Ladak Tibet (1866)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Territories of the Maharaja of Jummoo and Kashmir (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Lotus Lilies on the Dal Lake (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Lalla Rookh's Tomb, Hassan Abdal (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Sketch Map to Illustrate the Diaries in Nepal and Sikkim (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Kadal Bridge Over the Jhelam at Bijbihara (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - The Lull before the Storm, Dal Lake (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Panorama Profiles [V] (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Panorama Profiles [VI] (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Index Map of Routes (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Mosque of Shah Hamadan, Srinagar (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Entrance to the Mar Canal (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - The Frozen Lake, Gangabal (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Sketch of the Panorama from the Takht-i-Sulaiman (East-South-West) (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Lake Shisha Nag, Lidar Valley (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Title Page (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Front Cover (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Routes in High Asia (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Drift Sands in the Interior of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab (1866)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Makka Mosque and Tombs of the Nigams at Hyderabad (1887)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Panorama Profiles [VII] (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - The Camping-Ground at Lidarwat (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - The Temple, Chenar Bagh (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - Map of India (1887)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Martund (1863)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Kotwal from near the Dal Darwaza (1911)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Pandreton (1863)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - On the Circular Road, Guhnarg (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Evening on the Dal Lake (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - In the Sind Valley (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Mount Kolahoi, Lidar Valley (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Chorkonda Glacier in Balti Tibet (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Back Cover (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Colored Wrapper Front Cover (1866)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Interior of a Buddhist Temple at Penyangchi (1887)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Peaks and Glaciers of the Sasser Pass in Nuba Tibet [I] (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Panorama Profiles [III] (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Illustrations of the Meterology of India and High Asia [IV] (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Gorge of the Sind Valley at Guggangir (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Flats of the Hiron Valley from the Barer Plateau near Kattingi Central India (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Interior of the Buddhistic Temple of the Monastery Mangnang in Gnari Khorsum (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Valley of the Yarkand River Downwards from Dera Bullu in Turkistan (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Sunset on the Wular Lake (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Going to the Wedding, Upper Indus Valley (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - The Tannin Glen, Lidar Valley (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Mahanadi River in the Rainy Season Central Bengal (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Gate of the Outer Wall, Hari Parbat Fort, Srinagar (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Peaks and Glaciers of the Sasser Pass in Nuba Tibet [II] (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of Kashmir (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Facsimile of a Bhutia Map (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Part IV Colored Wrapper (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Jhils of Bengal at High Water (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - A Corner of the Village of Pahlgam, Lidar Valley (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - A Ladaki in Summer Costume (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Alluvial High Ground On the Western Border of the Sindh Sager Duab Panjab (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Satlej Valley and the Environs of Rampur in the Western Himalaya (1866)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Temple Decoration, Himalayas (1863)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Ladak (1863)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Above the Camping-Ground, Sonamarg, Sind Valley (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - The Darbar at Patan (1887)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Summit of Kanchinjinga in the Himalaya of Sikkim (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Kotwal from the Forest above Kangan, Sind Valley (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Approach to Srinagar (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Lake Shisha Nag at Sunset (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Guggribal Pointe on the Dal Lake (1911)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - Title Page (1887)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Monastery of Hemis (1863)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Title Page (1863)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Dominions of the Nizam of Haidarabad including Berar (1887)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Salt Lake Tsomoriri in Rupchu Western Tibet (1866)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Lamieroo (1863)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Seventh Bridge, Sirinugger (1863)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Cane Suspension Bridge Over the Temshang River in the Khassia Hills (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Back Cover (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - he Bias Between Amritsar and Jalander Panjab (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Mount Haramokh, from the Erin Nullah (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - In the Forest (1911)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - Solomon's Throne (1863)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Palm Grove and Singhalese Habitations near Galle Ceylon (1866)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Gaurisankar or Mount Everest in the Himalaya of Nepal (1866)
Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet - View in Sirinugger (1863)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - Panorama of the Lake and the Gardens near Srinagar Kashmir Northern Aspect (1866)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Distant View of Xanga Parbat, from the Kamri Pass (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - A Wayside Shrine (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Mountain Mists (1911)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Ruins of Temples, Wangat, Sind Valley (1911)
Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia Atlas - The Chain of the Kuenluen from Sumgal in Turkistan (1866)

Related Maps

Map Name
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - Map of India (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Dominions of the Nizam of Haidarabad including Berar (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - The Territories of the Maharaja of Jummoo and Kashmir (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 1 - City and Environs of Srinagar in Kashmir (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Map of Kashmir to Illustrate Routes (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Sketch Map Showing the Mountain and River Systems of Sikkim (1887)
Journals Kept in Hyderabad, Kashmir, Sikkim, and Nepal Vol. 2 - Sketch Map to Illustrate the Diaries in Nepal and Sikkim (1887)
Kashmir, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of Kashmir (1911)

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