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Mediterranean Collection

History Archive - Mediterranean Collection

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe. The history of the cultures and people of the Mediterranean Basin is important for understanding the origin and development of the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Phoenician, Hebrew, Carthaginian, Greek, Persian, Thracian, Etruscan, Iberian, Roman, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Arab, Ottoman, Christian and Islamic cultures.

Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states and the Phoenicians. The Greeks expanded throughout the Black Sea and south through the Red Sea. The Phoenicians spread through the western Mediterranean reaching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. From the 6th century BC up to including the 5th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples were under Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during these years. Both the Phoenicians and some of the Greek city states in Asia Minor provided the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Persian dominance ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC and Persia was crippled by Macedonia in the 4th century BC.

Spread throughout the Mediterranean region are the ruins and remains of these vast empires as well as the modern day cultures who inhabit them. Many pictorial works were about various structures and scenery seen by travelers along the way that were the remnants of these great civilizations. While covering disparate areas around the Mediterranean Sea the architecture and other cultural aspects are very similar.

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Persian Empire

From the 6th century BC up to including the first half of the 4th century BC, many of the significant Mediterranean peoples came under Achaemenid Persian rule, making them dominate the Mediterranean during all these years. The empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, would include Macedonia, Thrace, modern day Bulgaria, Egypt, Anatolia, the Phoenician lands, the Levant, and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean later on. Darius the Great (Darius I) is to be credited as the first Achaemenid king to invest in a Persian fleet.

Even by then no true "imperial navy" had existed either in Greece or Egypt. Persia would become the first empire, under Darius, to inaugurate and deploy the first regular imperial navy. Both the Phoenicians and the Greeks provided the bulk of the naval forces of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, alongside the Cypriots and Egyptians. Full Persian dominance in the Mediterranean ended after the Greco-Persian War in the 5th century BC, and Persia eventually lost all her influence in the Mediterranean in the late 4th century BC following Alexander's conquests.

Hellenistic Period

In the northernmost part of ancient Greece, in the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, technological and organizational skills were forged with a long history of cavalry warfare. Under Alexander the Great, this force turned east, and in a series of decisive battles, it routed the Persian forces and took over as the dominant empire of the Mediterranean. Their Macedonia empire included present-day Greece, Bulgaria, Egypt, the Phoenician lands and many other basin regions of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. The major centers of the Mediterranean at the time became part of Alexander's empire as a result. His empire quickly disintegrated, and the Middle East, Egypt, and Greece were soon again independent. Alexander's conquests spread Greek knowledge and ideas throughout the region.

Rome and Carthage

These eastern powers soon began to be overshadowed by those farther west. In North Africa, the former Phoenician colony of Carthage rose to dominate its surroundings with an empire that contained many of the former Phoenician holdings. However, it was a city on the Italian Peninsula, Rome, that would eventually dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. Spreading first through Italy, Rome defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, despite Hannibal's famous efforts against Rome in the Second Punic War.

After the Third Punic War, Rome then became the leading force in the Mediterranean region. The Romans soon spread east, taking Greece, and the Greek heritage played an important role in the Roman Empire. By this point the coastal trading cultures were thoroughly dominant over the inland river valleys that had once been the heart of the great powers. Egyptian power moved from the Nile cities to the coastal ones, especially Alexandria. Mesopotamia became a fringe border region between the Roman Empire and the Persians.

When Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Mediterranean sea began to be called Mare Nostrum (Latin: "Our Sea") by the Romans. Their empire was centered on this sea and all the area was full of commerce and naval development. For the first time in history, an entire sea (the Mediterranean) was free of piracy. For several centuries, the Mediterranean was a "Roman Lake", surrounded on all sides by the empire. The empire began to crumble, however, in the fifth century and Rome collapsed after AD 476.

References:

Couper, Alastair (2015). The Geography of Sea Transport. Routledge. p. 33-37. ISBN 978-1-317-35150-4. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-20.

Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-84603-108-3.

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Book Title Date
Mediterranean - Sicily, Painted and Described Sicily, Painted and Described 1911
Mediterranean - Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands Travels through Sicily, and the Lipari Islands 1827
Mediterranean - The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Restored 1862
Mediterranean - An Artist in the Riviera An Artist in the Riviera 1915
Mediterranean - Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans Ilios : The City and Country of the Trojans 1880
Mediterranean - Ravenna, a Study Ravenna, a Study 1913
Mediterranean - A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure A Voyage up the Mediterranean in His Majesty's Ship the Swiftsure 1802
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 2 1935
Mediterranean - Le Jupiter Olympien Le Jupiter Olympien 1815
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 4, Pt. 1 1935
Mediterranean - Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood Six Views of Gibraltar and its Neighbourhood 1825
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 The Palace of Minos Vol. 3 1930
Mediterranean - The Sea-Kings of Crete The Sea-Kings of Crete 1910
Mediterranean - Malta, Painted and Described Malta, Painted and Described 1910
Mediterranean - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 3 1806
Mediterranean - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 2 1819
Mediterranean - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 1 1815
Mediterranean - Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, Algiers, and Spain 1870
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 2 1928
Mediterranean - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 2 1776
Mediterranean - A Tour Through Sicily A Tour Through Sicily 1819
Mediterranean - The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia The Ruins of Paestum, otherwise Posidonia 1768
Mediterranean - Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos Itinerare auf der Insel Lesbos 1895
Mediterranean - Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan 1820
Mediterranean - Saracenic and Norman Remains Saracenic and Norman Remains 1840
Mediterranean - Naples, Painted and Described Naples, Painted and Described 1904
Mediterranean - An Artist in Corfu An Artist in Corfu 1911
Mediterranean - Rome and It's Story Rome and It's Story 1904
Mediterranean - Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar 1846
Mediterranean - Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries Troja : Results of the Latest Researches and Discoveries 1884
Mediterranean - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 1 1806
Mediterranean - Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities 1878
Mediterranean - Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera Gleanings from Piccadilly to Pera 1854
Mediterranean - Travels and Researches in Crete Travels and Researches in Crete 1865
Mediterranean - Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic 1849
Mediterranean - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 1820
Mediterranean - Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings 1885
Mediterranean - L'Antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque L'Antique Rome, ou, Description Historique et Pittoresque 1796
Mediterranean - The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described 1912
Mediterranean - Panoramic View of Corfu Panoramic View of Corfu 1836
Mediterranean - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 1 1776
Mediterranean - Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described 1905
Mediterranean - Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna Unprotected Females in Sicily, Calabria, and on the Top of Mount Aetna 1859
Mediterranean - Rome, Painted and Described Rome, Painted and Described 1905
Mediterranean - Grecian Remains in Italy Grecian Remains in Italy 1812
Mediterranean - The Salonika Front The Salonika Front 1920
Mediterranean - A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome 1815
Mediterranean - Liber Insularum Arcipelagi Liber Insularum Arcipelagi 1470
Mediterranean - Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains 1834
Mediterranean - A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus 1909
Mediterranean - Liber Insularum Cycladum Liber Insularum Cycladum 1422
Mediterranean - Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence Sketches on the Old Road Through France to Florence 1904
Mediterranean - Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects Cyprus: It's History, It's Present Resources and Future Prospects 1878
Mediterranean - La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia La Piazza di San Marco in Venezia 1831
Mediterranean - Der Golf von Neapel Der Golf von Neapel 1877
Mediterranean - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 1820
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 2, Pt. 1 1928
Mediterranean - A Wanderer in Venice A Wanderer in Venice 1914
Mediterranean - Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries Mycenae : A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries 1878
Mediterranean - Lamia's Winter-Quarters Lamia's Winter-Quarters 1907
Mediterranean - Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia 1861
Mediterranean - The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots The Little Sea Torch: or, True Guide for Coasting Pilots 1801
Mediterranean - Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] Kitab-ı Bahriye [Book of Navigation] 1525
Mediterranean - Pompeii, Painted and Described Pompeii, Painted and Described 1910
Mediterranean - Along the Rivieras of France & Italy Along the Rivieras of France & Italy 1908
Mediterranean - Lectures on Roman Husbandry Lectures on Roman Husbandry 1857
Mediterranean - British Cyprus British Cyprus 1897
Mediterranean - Troy and its Remains Troy and its Remains 1875
Mediterranean - Sketches of Vesuvius Sketches of Vesuvius 1832
Mediterranean - Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 1820
Mediterranean - Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum Geographia Antiqua Latinorum et Graecorum 1721
Mediterranean - Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 Campi Phlegraei Vol. 3 1779
Mediterranean - Life in Asiatic Turkey Life in Asiatic Turkey 1879
Mediterranean - Naples and the Campagna Felice Naples and the Campagna Felice 1815
Mediterranean - A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece Vol. 1 1819
Mediterranean - Venetia and Northern Italy Venetia and Northern Italy 1908
Mediterranean - A Ramble in Malta and Sicily A Ramble in Malta and Sicily 1842
Mediterranean - A Pilgrimage to Italy A Pilgrimage to Italy 1899
Mediterranean - Views in Greece Views in Greece 1821
Mediterranean - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 1 1820
Mediterranean - Greece Painted and Described Greece Painted and Described 1906
Mediterranean - The Riviera Painted & Described The Riviera Painted & Described 1907
Mediterranean - A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 1815
Mediterranean - Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques Vues et Descriptions de Constructions Cyclopeennes ou Pelasgiques 1834
Mediterranean - Italian Villas and Their Gardens Italian Villas and Their Gardens 1905
Mediterranean - The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 The Palace of Minos Vol. 1 1921
Mediterranean - Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt 1803
Mediterranean - Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle Die Riviera: Wanderziele und Winterasyle 1884
Mediterranean - Italian Scenery Italian Scenery 1806
Mediterranean - Rambles on the Riviera Rambles on the Riviera 1906
Mediterranean - Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily 1824
Mediterranean - Il Canal Grande di Venezia Il Canal Grande di Venezia 1831
Mediterranean - Sketches of Corsica Sketches of Corsica 1825
Mediterranean - The War in Italy The War in Italy 1859
Mediterranean - Pompei Pompei 1840
Mediterranean - A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 A Picturesque Tour of Italy Vol. 2 1820
Mediterranean - Six Views of Gibraltar Six Views of Gibraltar 1828
Mediterranean - Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 Raccolta di Pitture Etrusche Vol. 2 1806

Related Images

Image Name
The Riviera Painted & Described - San Remo, Ancient and Modern (1907)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - On the Old Road to Fiesole (1905)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - View of the Gate and High Street of Pompeii (1815)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Seismogram of the Messina Earthquake (1911)
Italian Scenery - A Calessino, or Hackney-Chaise (1806)
A Restoration of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus - Title Page (1909)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - Front Cover (1905)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Thebes (1820)
A Select Collection of Views and Ruins in Rome - Ponte Nomentano (1815)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Etna, Giardini, and Schiso from Taormina (1911)
Italian Scenery - Washing Place at Torre del Greco (1806)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Another Gate at Norba (1834)
The Riviera Painted & Described - Zoagli (1907)
The Riviera Painted & Described - Entrance to Vallebona (1907)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Terrace Wall and Drains of the Temple of Minerva Kranaia (1834)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Acropolis of Signia (1834)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Mode of Travelling in Turkey (1820)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Smyrna (1820)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Book Display (1815)
Saracenic and Norman Remains - (1840)
Greece Painted and Described - Triple Bridge over the Mavrozoumenos River (1906)
Sicily, Painted and Described - A Dead City, Selinous (1911)
Italian Scenery - Frontispiece (1806)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Palazzo S. Stefano, Taormina (1911)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Old Houses, Taormina (1911)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - General View of the Pointed Gates (1834)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - General View of Tiryns And the Plain of Argos [I] (1834)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Pompei - Back Cover (1840)
Select Views of the Rock and Fortress of Gibraltar - The Mediterranean Battery (1846)
Greece Painted and Described - The Stadion at Athens (1906)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Bacchantes from a Pompeian Fresco (1899)
The Riviera Painted & Described - On the Shore, Diano Marina - Cervo in the Distance (1907)
A Wanderer in Venice - The Palazzo Pesaro (Orfei), Campo S. Benedetto (1914)
Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily - The Capuchin Selva in the Latomia (1824)
A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 - Map of Sicily (1815)
Sicily, Painted and Described - Monte Cofano from Portarella, Trapani (1911)
Lamia's Winter-Quarters - (1907)
Grecian Remains in Italy - View from the Grotto of the Convent of the Capuchins at Albano (1812)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Views in Greece - Dinner at Crisso (1821)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Venice from the Lagoon (1899)
Naples, Painted and Described - Back Cover (1904)
British Cyprus - Front Cover (1897)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Ruins of Echinos in Thessaly (1834)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Small Gate of the Acropolis Mycenae (1834)
A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 - Distant View of the Ancient Temple of Segesta (1815)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Acropolis of Amphissa (1834)
Sicily, Painted and Described - The Cloisters, Monreale (1911)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Sicily, Painted and Described - The Theatre and Street of Tombs, Syracuse (1911)
Greece Painted and Described - The Acropolis with Kallirrhoe in the Foreground (1906)
Grecian Remains in Italy - Lake of Albano (1st View) (1812)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Walls at Setium [I] (1834)
Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan - Book Display (1820)
Florence & Some Tuscan Cities Painted and Described - A Misty Effect of the Towers of Florence (1905)
The Italian Lakes, Painted and Described - (1912)
Views in Greece - South-West View of the Erechtheion (1821)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
A Voyage to Cadiz and Gibraltar Vol. 2 - View of Murat's Camp & Flotilla in Calabria, with a division of British Gun Boats standing across to attack (1815)
Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan - Plan of the Road of the Simplon (1820)
Naples, Painted and Described - (1904)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 - Spine (1820)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Ruins of an Ancient City now called Aias near the Gulf of Pagasai in Thessaly (1834)
The Salonika Front - Vergetor Church (1920)
Ravenna, a Study - S. Giovanni Battista (1913)
Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan - View of the Exterior of the Gallery of Algaby (1820)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - The Rock of Mauga, Isaurian Mountains in the Distance (Sunrise) (1879)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
An Artist in Corfu - An Afternoon in Spring (1911)
Views in Greece - Larissa (1821)
Memoir Descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography, of Sicily - Leaf of the Cactus opuntia (1824)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - A view near Naples (1815)
Grecian Remains in Italy - A view of Rome from Monte Mario (1812)
Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan - Bridge of Crevola (1820)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
A Tour Through Sicily - Plan of the Port of Messina (1819)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Ruins of an Ancient City near Mesaloggion in Aetolia [II] (1834)
Le Jupiter Olympien - Pl. XV. Plan du trône, de son estrade et de sa balustrade, etc. (1815)
Views in Greece - The Hyperian Fountain at Pherae (1821)
Greece Painted and Described - Front Cover (1906)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Back Cover (1899)
The Riviera Painted & Described - The Old Town, Cannes (1907)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan - East View of Sion (1820)
Ravenna, a Study - S. Apollinare Nuovo (1913)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Plan of Spalato (1849)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
A Tour Through Sicily - Topographical Plan of the Ancient Syracusa (1819)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 2 - Arab Woman of Cairo (1820)
Rome, Painted and Described - (1905)
The Riviera Painted & Described - Title Page (1907)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Site of Derbe (On a Small Central Hill), Karajah Dagh in the Distance (1879)
The Riviera Painted & Described - Cap Martin (1907)
Views and descriptions of Cyclopian, or, Pelasgic remains - Walls at Cora [I] (1834)

Related Maps

Map Name
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Outlines of the Coast of the Adriatic from Istria to Albania (1849)
Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic - Plan of Spalato (1849)
A Tour Through Sicily - Sicily Reduced from a Map Published by Authority at Naples in the Year 1810 (1819)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Country, Islands, &c in the Vicinity of Naples (1815)
Naples and the Campagna Felice - Map of the Island of Capri in the Gulf of Naples (1815)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 1 - Map of Greece and the Archipelago (1820)
Journal of a Tour in the Levant Vol. 3 - Map of the Countries on the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea (1820)
Rambles in the Islands of Corsica and Sardinia - Corsica and Sardinia (1861)
A Pilgrimage to Italy - Italy (1899)
Cyprus: It's Resources and Capabilities - Cypres by E. G. Ravenstein (1878)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - A Sketch Map to Illustrate Revd E. J. Davis' Journey's in Cilicia &c. (1879)
Life in Asiatic Turkey - Map of Asia Minor Shewing the District Visited by Revd E. J. Davis (1879)

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