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Portugal

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Portugal Collection

History Archive - Portugal Collection

Portugal is a nation located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The pre-Celtic people, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128. The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497-98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

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Image Name
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Peasant in a Straw Coat (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - St. Francisco in the procession of St. Antonio (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Flying Bridge on the Tejo, at Villa-Velha (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Sea-Coast near Lagos, and the Battery called O Pinhao Algarve (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Sketch of the Action between the British and French Forces at Vimieiro, Portugal, 21st August, 1808 (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Portuguese Marine (1809)
Views of Cintra - Entrance to the Penna (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Servant Girls of Salamanca (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Royal Palace of Mafra, Estramadura (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Aljustrel, from the East, Alemtejo (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Punhete, at the junction of the River Zerere with the Tejo: Estramadura (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Opomar Velho, in the mountain of Monchique, Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Portuguese Legion of Alorgna (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Villa Nova de Portimao Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Spanish Military Costume (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Fourth degree of Torture of the Inquisition (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Cintra (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Bathing in the Tagus (1826)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Pass near Villa Franca (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A French Dragoon (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Sketch of the Disposition of the Allies under the Command of Lieut. Gen. Hill (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Third degree of Torture of the Inquisition (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - French coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot. (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Peasant of Torres Vedras (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Lisbon and Aqueduct of Alcantara (1809)
Views of Cintra - An Old Chapel of the Moorish Castle (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Attack of the Castle of Burgos, 1812 (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - A Lisbon Chiase (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - From the Castle at Abrantes, anciently called Tubuci: Estremadura (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Novion or Lisbon Police Cavalry (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Town and Harbour of Setubal (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Cintra from the Lisbon Road (1809)
Views of Cintra - The Cork Convent (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Action near Coruna, Jan 16th, 1809 (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Alcacer Sal, anciently called Salacia; from the North Estramadura (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Execution of the Conspirators - Plate 1st (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Convent on the highest part of the Rock of Lisboa Estramadura (1818)
Views of Cintra - Cintra (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Second degree of Torture of the Inquisition (1818)
Views of Cintra - A Part of the Palace, Cintra (1830)
Views of Cintra - A Distant View of the Penna Convent (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Title Page (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Estremoz, from the Road leading to Elvas, Alemtejo (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Aqueduct of Alcantara (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Begging for the Festival of N.S. d'Atalaya (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Attack of Cuidad Rodrigo, 19th Jan 1812 (1818)
Views of Cintra - The Market Place, Cintra (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Near San Payo, on the road to Redondela, looking towards Vigo (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Day of All Souls, in the Convent of St. Joao de Deos. (1826)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Villa Franca (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Villa-Nova de Mil Fontes, Alemtejo (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Portuguese Military Costume (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Landing place at Belem (1826)
Views of Cintra - The Church of Cintra (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Sir Arthur Wellesley's Quarters, Vimieiro, 21st & 22nd Aug 1808 Estremadura (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Military Execution (1826)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Armed Peasant of the Ciudad Rodrigo Militia (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Title Page (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Student of the Irish College, Salamanca (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of Badajoz (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - An Infant Capuchin (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - View on the Tagus near Villa Velha (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Toro (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Vimieiro from near the road leading to Lorinha Estramadura (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Aliejos, a town in the Plains of Leon (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Lisboa or Lisbon, the Capital of Portugal (1818)
Views of Cintra - The Convent of Na. Sra. Da Penna (1830)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - View up the Tejo (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Spanish Infantry (1809)
Sketches in Portugal during the Civil War - Title Page (1835)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Arroyoles; Anciently called Calentica Alemtejo (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Spanish coins shewing their value as directed to pass current in Portugal by General Junot. (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Vidigal's Modinha of Cruel Saudade (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Albofeira, from the road leading to Faro: Algarve (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Portuguese Dragoons (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Alcacer Sal, anciently called Salacia or Urbs Imperatoria; from the East, Estramadura (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Car of Portuguese Estramadura (1809)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Execution of the Conspirators - Plate 2nd (1826)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Going home from the Lisbon Market (1826)
Views of Cintra - General View of Cintra (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Title Page (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of Tarifa and Island in the Straits of Gibraltar (1818)
Views of Cintra - Title Page (1830)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Castle of Benevente (1809)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Lady of Lisbon in her walking dress (1809)
Views of Cintra - Dedication (1830)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - Province of Beija. Inhabitants of Foz de Arouce (1826)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - City of Tuy on the Mino; Galicia (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Franciscans (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - City of Coimbra, anciently called Conimbra, from near the Bridge Beira (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - A Peasant Boy of Nisa (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Head of the Bay of Vigo between Puente San Payo and Ponte Vedra, Galicia (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 1 - Plan of the Fortress of St. Sebastian (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Palmella, from the road leading to Moita: Estramadura (1818)
Sketches of Portugal and Spain - Peasant of the Corregimiento of Salamanca (I) (1809)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Scene on the River Oeiras, at Mertolla, anciently called Mirtiles Julia (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Entrance of the Harbour of Portimao, Algarve (1818)
Historical, Military, and Picturesque Observations on Portugal Vol. 2 - Amarante on the RiverTamega: Entre Douro-e-Minho (1818)
Sketches of Portuguese Life - A Saloia retailing fruit (1826)
Views of Cintra - Back Cover (1830)

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