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South America Collection

History Archive - South America Collection

South America is a continent that is actually southeast of North America. The entire southern continent lies east of Florida, and three-fourths of its western coast lies east of New York. Its easternmost point is nearer to Africa than is its northern coast to New Orleans. Its length is 4,500 miles, greatest breadth 3,200 miles, area 7,300,000 square miles and in the early 1900s had a population of about 40,000,000.

It is a triangle with its base on the north, and dwindling to a point at Cape Horn on the south. Its coast-line is for the most part unbroken, the important inlets being on the north the Gulf of Venezuela, on the northeast the mouth of the Amazon, on the east the Bay of All Saints, Bay of Rio de Janeiro, the mouth of the Plata, Bahia Blanca, Gulf of San Matias and Bay of San George; on the west line there is no important break in the coast-line, but several small bays which afford harbors.

The history of the continent falls into two eras, that before and that since Columbus discovered South America (1498). The Peruvian or Inca Indians had advanced far in culture and empire-building, but Pizarro (1531) conquered and destroyed their civilization. The history during the sixteenth century is a record of exploration and invasion. As early as 1550 the contour of the continent was determined, the country penetrated to the core and European power established. Spanish activity included far the greater part of the habitable area, Portuguese colonization confining itself to Brazil.

Portugal and Spain for three centuries failed to treat their possessions sagaciously or generously, exploiting the colonists as badly as the natives and the resources. Between 1605 and 1767 the Jesuits civilized the Indians of Paraguay. During 1776-1811 colonial loyalty to Spain was everywhere weakened. In 1810-25 came the heroic age. Bolivar, San Martin and Sucre freed Buenos Aires, Chile, New Granada (now Colombia), Quito (now Ecuador), Paraguay and Peru, while Brazil became independent peacefully.

United States president James Monroe, in 1823, enunciated the doctrine that Europe should in no way attempt to control the destiny of South America. During 1825-75 the Spanish Americans suffered greatly, the Brazilians slightly, from civil and foreign wars, but about 1877 an era of progress opened. Our Centennial and Columbian Expositions fostered aspirations for peace and prosperity.

Secretary Blaine, President Cleveland and Secretary Root strengthened political friendship between Latin America and the United States - the first (1881 and 1889) by Pan-American congresses, the second (1896) by forcing Britain to arbitrate the Guiana disagreement with Venezuela, the third (1907) by visiting the southern republics. They participated honorably in the Hague peace-conferences of 1890 and 1907. Argentina, Brazil and Chile have progressed materially.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Thal von Caracas mit der Silla de Caracas (1892)
Travels in South America Vol. 1 - The Usual Walking Costume of Lima (1825)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Différentes Nations Negres (1835)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Formes, habillement et parure etc [I] (1821)
Argentina, Past and Present - Ready For the Road (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Venta a Reziffe (1835)
Argentina, Past and Present - Lemco Schoolhouse : Colon (1914)
Voyage a Surinam - Un carbet (1839)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Barbacena (1835)
Narratives of South America - South American Cottage (1836)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Embarquement des Troupes a Prahia Grande pour l'Expedition contre Monte-Video (1839)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Aconcaqua (1854)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Negres Cangueiros (1835)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Epoques de la nature, d'apres la mythologie azteque (1813)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Peeps at Many Lands: South America - The Snow-Clad Andes (1915)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Chasse au Tigre (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Map of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, with the Surrounding States (1807)
Argentina, Past and Present - Railway Station : Plaza Constitucion (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Une dame Brésilienne dans son interieur (1835)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Picturesque Buenos Ayres & Monte Video - Shipping Hides at the Custom House (1820)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Negres Scieurs de Long (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Manner of catching Fish by the Spring-Basket (1796)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa para la Inteligencia de la Historia, Fisica, y Politica de Chile (1854)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - The Botafogo Portion of Rio's Bay-side Avenue (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - San-Salvador (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Maca Chieftain and His Daughters (1914)
Paraguay by Henry Koebel - Government House, Asuncion (1917)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Title Page (1854)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - A Rural Inn (1911)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Diego Portales [Chilean Minister of the Interior] (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Winter Scene (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Porto do Estrella (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - La Roche d'Inti-Guaieu (1821)
Recuerdos de la Monarquia Peruana - Sayri Ttupac (1850)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - The Quato & Sacccawinkee Monkeys (1796)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Les Entrennes de Noel (1839)
Paraguay by Henry Koebel - Packing Yerba (1917)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Front Cover (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Concours des Ecoliers, la veille du jour de St. Alexis (1839)
The Present State of Peru - Mulattoes of Quito (1805)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Incendio de Valparaiso (15 Marzo, 1843) (1854)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Indiens Pampas (1821)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Back Cover (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Une dame portee en Caderinha, allant a la Messe (1839)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Barque Brésilienne faite avec un Cuir de Boeuf (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Manner of Sleeping in the Forest (1796)
Voyage a Surinam - Femmes indiennes (1839)
Travels in South America Vol. 1 - View of the Great Chain of the Andes taken from the Plain of the Maypu (1825)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Manuscript 512 - Exploration Fawcett (1953) (1754)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Planta de Cidade de S. Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Hospice de N.S. da Piudade a Bahia (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Danse Landu (1835)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Les Araucans (1821)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - Inca Ruins (1856)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Radeau de la riviere de Guayaquil (1813)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Famille Indienne. Botocudos. (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Famille de Planteurs (1835)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Poloniae (1570)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Habillement des habitans de Santiago (1821)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Division 1, Part 1 Wrapper (1835)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Jeu de la Ciueca (1821)
The Temple of the Andes - Plate 2 (1884)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - The San Jose Road Bridge (1911)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Botocudos. (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - L'Empereur suivi d'un Chambellan et d'un Premier Valet de Chambre (1839)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Ruines de Miguitlan ou Mitla dans la province d'Oaxaca; plan et elevation [II] (1813)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Costumes de Bahia (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - The Toucan & the Fly-catcher (1796)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Tunnel at Banada de Rocha (1911)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Poste aux lettres de la province de Jaen de Bracamoros (1813)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Prefecture of the Federal District (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Quête nomme la folie de l'empereur du St. Esprit (1839)
Argentina, Past and Present - Lemco and Oxo Factory : Colon (1914)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Lago Del Prado : Montevideo (1911)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Le signal du combat (Coroados Bororo) (1834)
Argentina, Past and Present - The Campo (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Wounded Giant Fox (1914)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Volcan de Cayambe (1813)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Inscription du Rocher dos Arvoredos (des Buissons) (1839)
Twelve Views in the Interior of Guiana - Itabru and Christmas Cataracts on the River Berbice (1841)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Suriname - Een Plantaadge Slavenkamp (1860)

Related Maps

Map Name
Travels in Brazil - Plan of the Port of Pernambuco (1816)
Travels in Brazil - Map of the Route (1816)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 1 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 2 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - A Map of Peru (1856)
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Routenkarte von a Goering's Reisen in Venezuela (1892)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Map of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, with the Surrounding States (1807)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - North Part of West Falkland (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - Plan of Banner Cove, Picton Island, Tierra del Fuego (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 2 - Chart of the Coast of Patagonia, the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego (1857)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Guiana (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Suriname (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Plan of the Principal Field of Action between the Rivers Cottica and Marawina; with a Sketch of the manner of Encamping in the Woods of Surinam (1796)
A Voyage in the West Indies - Caribbee or Leeward Islands (1820)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Carte du Brésil (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Plan de la Baie de Rio Janeiro (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Planta de Cidade de S. Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro (1835)
A Diary of the Wreck of His Majesty's Ship Challenger - Molguilla Beach Showing the Wreck of the H.M.S. Challenger (1836)
Map of the British Empire in America - A Map of the British Empire in America with the French and Spanish Settlements adjacent thereto. by Henry Popple. (1746)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa para la Inteligencia de la Historia, Fisica, y Politica de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Estrecho de Magallanes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 1 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 2 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Chloe (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Concepcion (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Cauquenes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Talca y de Colcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Santiago y de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Aconcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Coquimbo (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Atacama (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de Juan Fernandes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de la Mocha (1854)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Natoliae / Aegypti, Recentior Descriptio / Carthaginis Celeberrim Sinus Typis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Turcici Imperii Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Persicic Sive Sophorum Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Poloniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Transilvania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Graeciae Universae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Cyprus Insula (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Neapolitani (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Thusciae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Pedemontanae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Ducatus Mediolanensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Vindelicae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Austriae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Silesiae Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Bohemiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Franciae Orientalis Monasteriensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Saxoniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Daniae Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Vtriusque (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Flandria (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Brabantiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Gelriae, Cliviae Finitimorumque Locorumverissima Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Descriptio Germaniae Inferioris (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Germania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Caletensium / Verom. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regionis Biturigum Limaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Regni Potentiss (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Portugalliae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Hispaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae sive Britannicar Insularum Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Europae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Africae Tabula Nova (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Asiae Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Orbis Terrarum (1570)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto de San Carlos (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Talcahuano (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto Constitucion (1841) (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano De Santiago (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Batalla de Maypu (1854)
South America, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of South America (1912)
Argentina, Past and Present - Map Accompanying Argentina Past and Present, Second Edition (1914)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua & Lope de Aguirre - A Map Shewing the Track of the Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre AD 1560-61 (1861)

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