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South America Collection

History Archive - South America Collection

South America is a continent that is actually southeast of North America. The entire southern continent lies east of Florida, and three-fourths of its western coast lies east of New York. Its easternmost point is nearer to Africa than is its northern coast to New Orleans. Its length is 4,500 miles, greatest breadth 3,200 miles, area 7,300,000 square miles and in the early 1900s had a population of about 40,000,000.

It is a triangle with its base on the north, and dwindling to a point at Cape Horn on the south. Its coast-line is for the most part unbroken, the important inlets being on the north the Gulf of Venezuela, on the northeast the mouth of the Amazon, on the east the Bay of All Saints, Bay of Rio de Janeiro, the mouth of the Plata, Bahia Blanca, Gulf of San Matias and Bay of San George; on the west line there is no important break in the coast-line, but several small bays which afford harbors.

The history of the continent falls into two eras, that before and that since Columbus discovered South America (1498). The Peruvian or Inca Indians had advanced far in culture and empire-building, but Pizarro (1531) conquered and destroyed their civilization. The history during the sixteenth century is a record of exploration and invasion. As early as 1550 the contour of the continent was determined, the country penetrated to the core and European power established. Spanish activity included far the greater part of the habitable area, Portuguese colonization confining itself to Brazil.

Portugal and Spain for three centuries failed to treat their possessions sagaciously or generously, exploiting the colonists as badly as the natives and the resources. Between 1605 and 1767 the Jesuits civilized the Indians of Paraguay. During 1776-1811 colonial loyalty to Spain was everywhere weakened. In 1810-25 came the heroic age. Bolivar, San Martin and Sucre freed Buenos Aires, Chile, New Granada (now Colombia), Quito (now Ecuador), Paraguay and Peru, while Brazil became independent peacefully.

United States president James Monroe, in 1823, enunciated the doctrine that Europe should in no way attempt to control the destiny of South America. During 1825-75 the Spanish Americans suffered greatly, the Brazilians slightly, from civil and foreign wars, but about 1877 an era of progress opened. Our Centennial and Columbian Expositions fostered aspirations for peace and prosperity.

Secretary Blaine, President Cleveland and Secretary Root strengthened political friendship between Latin America and the United States - the first (1881 and 1889) by Pan-American congresses, the second (1896) by forcing Britain to arbitrate the Guiana disagreement with Venezuela, the third (1907) by visiting the southern republics. They participated honorably in the Hague peace-conferences of 1890 and 1907. Argentina, Brazil and Chile have progressed materially.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
Manuscript 512 - Manuscript 512 Inscriptions Reproduction (1839) (1754)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Machacari. Camacan. (1835)
South America, Painted and Described - A Tropical Scene on the Parana River (1912)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Vue de la mission de San-Fidelis (1821)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Benguela. Angola. Congo. Monjolo. (1835)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Residence of Mr. Joseph Walker, Petropolis (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Vases en Bois destines a contenir de l'eau / Vases faits en terre cuite destines au meme usage (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - Group of Negros, as imported to be sold for Slaves (1796)
Voyage a Surinam - Interieur d'un carbet (1839)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Ponts naturels d'Icononzo (1821)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Botocudos. (1835)
Souvenirs de Rio de Janeiro - Front Cover (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - Title Page (1796)
Souvenirs de Rio de Janeiro - Vista de N.S. da Gloria et da Barra do Rio de Janeiro (1835)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
South America, Painted and Described - In the Botanical Gardens, Rio (1912)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Boutique de Carne Secca (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Planta de Cidade de S. Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro (1835)
Argentina, Past and Present - La Perla Bay : Mar Del Plata (1914)
Voyage a Surinam - Illustrated Title Page (1839)
Argentina, Past and Present - Map of Argentina (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Denizen of the Pastures (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1854)
Travels in Brazil Vol. 1 - Front Cover (1824)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Parlamento del Presidente Ambrosio O'Higgins (Negrete, 3 Marco 1793) (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mineros (1854)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Title Page (1911)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
South America, Painted and Described - Brazilian Woodland Scenery at Sunset (1912)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Rideau d'avant scene execute au Theatre de la Cour, pour la representation d'apparat (1839)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Tete gravee en pierre dure par les Indiens Muyscas; bracelet d'obsidienne (1813)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - Female Quadroon Slave of Surinam (1796)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Danse Landu (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Flandria (1570)
Views and Costumes of the City and Neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro - A Market Stall (1822)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Herd At Noonday (1914)
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Paramo de Mucuchies (1892)
Argentina, Past and Present - Map of Argentina (1914)
Recuerdos de Lima - La Zamacueca (1857)
Recuerdos de la Monarquia Peruana - Tupac Amaro (1850)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Vue de l'exterieur de la Galerie de l'acclamation du Roi Dom Jean vi a Rio de Janeiro (1839)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Negro hung alive by the Ribs to a Gallows (1796)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Guanta Valle de Coquimbo (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Ruines d'une partie de l'ancienne ville peruvienne de Chulucanas (1813)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Forteresse du Cannar d'apres l'Atlas de Humboldt (1821)
Travels in South America Vol. 2 - Valpariso Bay (1825)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Souvenirs de Rio de Janeiro - Vista do Sacco d'Alferes & de St. Cristovao (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - Indians at Cuzco (1856)
Views and Costumes of the City and Neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro - Huma Historia (1822)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Argentina, Past and Present - Pleasant Pastures (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Chasse au Tigre, dans la Plaine (1835)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Montevideo And the Cerro Hill (1911)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Plans et elevations de deux grandes maisons [II] (1839)
Paraguay by Henry Koebel - Carlos Antonio Lopez (1917)
Argentina, Past and Present - The Inception of Fraternity (1914)
Voyage a Surinam - Un esclave du gouvernement charge de la proprete des rues (1839)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Porto do Estrella (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Differentes Formes de Masques (Coeffures) (1834)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
The Present State of Peru - Indian representation of the Costumes of the Ynca and his Queen (1805)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - Front Cover (1856)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Les Guayanas (1821)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Ville de Paramaribo (1821)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Recuerdos de la Monarquia Peruana - Sayri Ttupac (1850)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Indian Female of the Arrowauka Nation (1796)
Voyage a Surinam - Marche au Poisson et au Bois, au bord de l'eau, a Paramaribo (1839)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Antiguedades Chileanas [I] (1854)
Picturesque Buenos Ayres & Monte Video - Landing Place (1820)
South America, Painted and Described - An Araucanian Indian (1912)
Recuerdos de Lima - La Plazera (1857)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Plan of the City of Buenos Ayres (1807)
Travels in the Gold and Diamond Districts of Brazil - Assorted Flora Including Pine and Aloe (1825)
Voyage a Surinam - Un combe (1839)
Picturesque Buenos Ayres & Monte Video - Balling Ostriches (1820)
Argentina, Past and Present - Palermo Race Course : the Members' Stand (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - Mar Del Plata : The Bristol Hotel (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1821)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Camp nocturne de voyageurs (1835)
Voyage a Surinam - Negress'amusant a jouer au billard (1839)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - The Rattle Snake & Dypsas of Guiana (1796)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 2 - Front Cover (1825)
Voyage a Surinam - Maison de planteur pres de la source du Parakreet (1839)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Formes, habillement et parure etc [I] (1821)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Radeaux de Guayaquil (1821)
Picturesque Buenos Ayres & Monte Video - Paolistas, Soldiers of the East Bank of the Plata (1820)

Related Maps

Map Name
Travels in Brazil - Plan of the Port of Pernambuco (1816)
Travels in Brazil - Map of the Route (1816)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 1 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 2 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - A Map of Peru (1856)
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Routenkarte von a Goering's Reisen in Venezuela (1892)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Map of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, with the Surrounding States (1807)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - North Part of West Falkland (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - Plan of Banner Cove, Picton Island, Tierra del Fuego (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 2 - Chart of the Coast of Patagonia, the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego (1857)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Guiana (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Suriname (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Plan of the Principal Field of Action between the Rivers Cottica and Marawina; with a Sketch of the manner of Encamping in the Woods of Surinam (1796)
A Voyage in the West Indies - Caribbee or Leeward Islands (1820)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Carte du Brésil (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Plan de la Baie de Rio Janeiro (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Planta de Cidade de S. Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro (1835)
A Diary of the Wreck of His Majesty's Ship Challenger - Molguilla Beach Showing the Wreck of the H.M.S. Challenger (1836)
Map of the British Empire in America - A Map of the British Empire in America with the French and Spanish Settlements adjacent thereto. by Henry Popple. (1746)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa para la Inteligencia de la Historia, Fisica, y Politica de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Estrecho de Magallanes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 1 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 2 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Chloe (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Concepcion (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Cauquenes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Talca y de Colcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Santiago y de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Aconcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Coquimbo (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Atacama (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de Juan Fernandes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de la Mocha (1854)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Natoliae / Aegypti, Recentior Descriptio / Carthaginis Celeberrim Sinus Typis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Turcici Imperii Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Persicic Sive Sophorum Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Poloniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Transilvania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Graeciae Universae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Cyprus Insula (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Neapolitani (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Thusciae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Pedemontanae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Ducatus Mediolanensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Vindelicae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Austriae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Silesiae Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Bohemiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Franciae Orientalis Monasteriensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Saxoniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Daniae Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Vtriusque (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Flandria (1570)
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Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Caletensium / Verom. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regionis Biturigum Limaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Regni Potentiss (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Portugalliae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Hispaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae sive Britannicar Insularum Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Europae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Africae Tabula Nova (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Asiae Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Orbis Terrarum (1570)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto de San Carlos (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Talcahuano (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto Constitucion (1841) (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano De Santiago (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Batalla de Maypu (1854)
South America, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of South America (1912)
Argentina, Past and Present - Map Accompanying Argentina Past and Present, Second Edition (1914)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua & Lope de Aguirre - A Map Shewing the Track of the Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre AD 1560-61 (1861)

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