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South America Collection

History Archive - South America Collection

South America is a continent that is actually southeast of North America. The entire southern continent lies east of Florida, and three-fourths of its western coast lies east of New York. Its easternmost point is nearer to Africa than is its northern coast to New Orleans. Its length is 4,500 miles, greatest breadth 3,200 miles, area 7,300,000 square miles and in the early 1900s had a population of about 40,000,000.

It is a triangle with its base on the north, and dwindling to a point at Cape Horn on the south. Its coast-line is for the most part unbroken, the important inlets being on the north the Gulf of Venezuela, on the northeast the mouth of the Amazon, on the east the Bay of All Saints, Bay of Rio de Janeiro, the mouth of the Plata, Bahia Blanca, Gulf of San Matias and Bay of San George; on the west line there is no important break in the coast-line, but several small bays which afford harbors.

The history of the continent falls into two eras, that before and that since Columbus discovered South America (1498). The Peruvian or Inca Indians had advanced far in culture and empire-building, but Pizarro (1531) conquered and destroyed their civilization. The history during the sixteenth century is a record of exploration and invasion. As early as 1550 the contour of the continent was determined, the country penetrated to the core and European power established. Spanish activity included far the greater part of the habitable area, Portuguese colonization confining itself to Brazil.

Portugal and Spain for three centuries failed to treat their possessions sagaciously or generously, exploiting the colonists as badly as the natives and the resources. Between 1605 and 1767 the Jesuits civilized the Indians of Paraguay. During 1776-1811 colonial loyalty to Spain was everywhere weakened. In 1810-25 came the heroic age. Bolivar, San Martin and Sucre freed Buenos Aires, Chile, New Granada (now Colombia), Quito (now Ecuador), Paraguay and Peru, while Brazil became independent peacefully.

United States president James Monroe, in 1823, enunciated the doctrine that Europe should in no way attempt to control the destiny of South America. During 1825-75 the Spanish Americans suffered greatly, the Brazilians slightly, from civil and foreign wars, but about 1877 an era of progress opened. Our Centennial and Columbian Expositions fostered aspirations for peace and prosperity.

Secretary Blaine, President Cleveland and Secretary Root strengthened political friendship between Latin America and the United States - the first (1881 and 1889) by Pan-American congresses, the second (1896) by forcing Britain to arbitrate the Guiana disagreement with Venezuela, the third (1907) by visiting the southern republics. They participated honorably in the Hague peace-conferences of 1890 and 1907. Argentina, Brazil and Chile have progressed materially.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
South America, Painted and Described - Front Cover (1912)
Recuerdos de la Monarquia Peruana - Lloque Jupanqui (1850)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Gouaranis Civilises employes a Rio Janeiro comme artilleurs (1834)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Vista de la Laguna de la Laja en el Nacimiento del Rio (1854)
The Temple of the Andes - Plate 17 (1884)
South America, Painted and Described - The Gardens of the Palace of Dom Pedro II. at Rio (1912)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Indian Female of the Arrowauka Nation (1796)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Curaçao - Waaigat en Stadswal (1860)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - The Cattle Dip (1911)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Female Negro Slave, with a Weight chained to her Ancle (1796)
Argentina, Past and Present - Ascending Las Cuevas Pass (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - The Statue of Christ on the Argentine-chilean Frontier : Sunrise (1914)
Paraguay by Henry Koebel - House of Congress, Asuncion (1917)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Cabocle, (Indien Civilise) (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Marche sur la Braia dos Mineros (1835)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Corrientes Country Church (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Division 2, Part 4 Wrapper (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - The Harangus Volans, or Flying Fish (1796)
Argentina, Past and Present - Front Cover (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Moonlight Night in Central Argentina (1914)
Recuerdos de Lima - Chorrillos, Traje de Bano (1857)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Fragments de peintures azteques tires d'un manuscrit conserve a la bibliotheque du Vatican (1813)
Travels in South America Vol. 1 - Map of South America (1825)
Paraguay by Henry Koebel - Bringing Home Yerba (1917)
Narratives of South America - Peladeros (1836)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Une Mulatresse allant passer les fetes de Noel, a la campagne (1839)
Deck and Port, or, Incidents of a Cruise in the United States Frigate Congress to California - Back Cover (1850)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Estrecho de Magallanes (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - Andine Scenery (1914)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - On the Uruguay River (1911)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Views and Costumes of the City and Neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro - The Waterfall of Tijuca (1822)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Danse Landu (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Vue du Chateau Imperial de St. Crux (1839)
Voyage a Surinam - Vue du port et de la ville de Paramaribo et de la forteresse Zelandia (1839)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Curaçao - Legplaats der Oorlogschepen in de Haven (1860)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - Arequipa from the Alameda (1856)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Grottes pres de St. Joze (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Chloe (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Le signal du combat (Coroados Bororo) (1834)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct. (1570)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Maison de l'Inca, a Callo, dans le royaume de Quito (1813)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Paisano's Hut on the Chilean Frontier (1914)
Manuscript 512 - Exploration Fawcett (1953) (1754)
South America, Painted and Described - A Coffee Planter, São Paulo (1912)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Paveurs / Marchande d'atacaca (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Coquimbo (1854)
Voyage a Surinam - Pont, ou embarcation (1839)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Singe Leonina, le Condor etc (1821)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Puris dans leurs forets (1821)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Curaçao - Caracas Baai (1860)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Division 3, Part 6 Wrapper (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Costumes des Indiens de Mechoacan [II] (1813)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Manuscrit hieroglyphique azteque, conserve a la bibliotheque du Vatican (1813)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Danses des Chiliens (1821)
The Present State of Peru - Fighter at a Bull-Feast (1805)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
South America, Painted and Described - Rounding Up a Herd of Lemco Cattle on the Bichadero Estancia, Uruguay (1912)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Front Cover (1813)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - The Saw Fish & part of the Head reversed. (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Plan of the Principal Field of Action between the Rivers Cottica and Marawina; with a Sketch of the manner of Encamping in the Woods of Surinam (1796)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Coroatos. Coropos. (1835)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Colonia : Ruined Fortress Wall (1911)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Negresses de Rio-Janeiro (1835)
Argentina, Past and Present - The Iguazu Falls [III] (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
South America, Painted and Described - Arica in the Province of Moquegua (1912)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Venta a Reziffe (1835)
Vues des Cordilleres et Monumens de l'Amerique - Peinture hieroglyphique tiree du manuscrit borgien de Veletri, et signes des jours de l'almanach mexicain (1813)
Voyage a Surinam - Interieur de cuisine (1839)
South America, Painted and Described - The Organ Mountains from Theresapolis (1912)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Cattle on the Road (1911)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Catacombes de la Paroisse des Carmes (1839)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Suriname - Plantaadges Jagtlust en Suzanna's Daal (1860)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Vegetation du Bresil (1834)
The Present State of Peru - Overseer of a Royal Peruvian Mine (1805)
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Urwaldflora (1892)
The Temple of the Andes - Plate 15 (1884)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - Arms, Ornaments & Furniture of the Indians (1796)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage a Surinam - Un agent de police, deux bastiens ou conducteurs d'esclaves, et un esclave du gouvernement (1839)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Plans et elevations de deux petites maisons [I] (1839)
Recuerdos de Lima - La Lechera (1857)
The Present State of Peru - A Lady of Lima in her full Dress (1805)
Argentina, Past and Present - A Chaco Stream (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Garde d'honneur de l'empereur (1839)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
The Temple of the Andes - Front Cover (1884)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Looking down from the Eastern Edge of Cocovado (1914)
South America, Painted and Described - The Roofs of Asuncion, with the Dome of the Un-Finished Cathedral (1912)
South America, Painted and Described - A Typical Street in Asuncion (1912)
Voyage a Surinam - Un village indien (1839)

Related Maps

Map Name
Travels in Brazil - Plan of the Port of Pernambuco (1816)
Travels in Brazil - Map of the Route (1816)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 1 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 2 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - A Map of Peru (1856)
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Routenkarte von a Goering's Reisen in Venezuela (1892)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Map of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, with the Surrounding States (1807)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - North Part of West Falkland (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - Plan of Banner Cove, Picton Island, Tierra del Fuego (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 2 - Chart of the Coast of Patagonia, the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego (1857)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Guiana (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Suriname (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Plan of the Principal Field of Action between the Rivers Cottica and Marawina; with a Sketch of the manner of Encamping in the Woods of Surinam (1796)
A Voyage in the West Indies - Caribbee or Leeward Islands (1820)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Carte du Brésil (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Plan de la Baie de Rio Janeiro (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Planta de Cidade de S. Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro (1835)
A Diary of the Wreck of His Majesty's Ship Challenger - Molguilla Beach Showing the Wreck of the H.M.S. Challenger (1836)
Map of the British Empire in America - A Map of the British Empire in America with the French and Spanish Settlements adjacent thereto. by Henry Popple. (1746)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa para la Inteligencia de la Historia, Fisica, y Politica de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Estrecho de Magallanes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 1 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 2 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Chloe (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Concepcion (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Cauquenes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Talca y de Colcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Santiago y de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Aconcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Coquimbo (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Atacama (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de Juan Fernandes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de la Mocha (1854)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Natoliae / Aegypti, Recentior Descriptio / Carthaginis Celeberrim Sinus Typis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Turcici Imperii Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Persicic Sive Sophorum Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Poloniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Transilvania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Graeciae Universae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Cyprus Insula (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Neapolitani (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Thusciae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Pedemontanae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Ducatus Mediolanensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Vindelicae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Austriae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Silesiae Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Bohemiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Franciae Orientalis Monasteriensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Saxoniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Daniae Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Vtriusque (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Flandria (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Brabantiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Gelriae, Cliviae Finitimorumque Locorumverissima Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Descriptio Germaniae Inferioris (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Germania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Caletensium / Verom. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regionis Biturigum Limaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Regni Potentiss (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Portugalliae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Hispaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae sive Britannicar Insularum Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Europae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Africae Tabula Nova (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Asiae Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Orbis Terrarum (1570)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto de San Carlos (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Talcahuano (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto Constitucion (1841) (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano De Santiago (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Batalla de Maypu (1854)
South America, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of South America (1912)
Argentina, Past and Present - Map Accompanying Argentina Past and Present, Second Edition (1914)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua & Lope de Aguirre - A Map Shewing the Track of the Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre AD 1560-61 (1861)

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