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South America Collection

History Archive - South America Collection

South America is a continent that is actually southeast of North America. The entire southern continent lies east of Florida, and three-fourths of its western coast lies east of New York. Its easternmost point is nearer to Africa than is its northern coast to New Orleans. Its length is 4,500 miles, greatest breadth 3,200 miles, area 7,300,000 square miles and in the early 1900s had a population of about 40,000,000.

It is a triangle with its base on the north, and dwindling to a point at Cape Horn on the south. Its coast-line is for the most part unbroken, the important inlets being on the north the Gulf of Venezuela, on the northeast the mouth of the Amazon, on the east the Bay of All Saints, Bay of Rio de Janeiro, the mouth of the Plata, Bahia Blanca, Gulf of San Matias and Bay of San George; on the west line there is no important break in the coast-line, but several small bays which afford harbors.

The history of the continent falls into two eras, that before and that since Columbus discovered South America (1498). The Peruvian or Inca Indians had advanced far in culture and empire-building, but Pizarro (1531) conquered and destroyed their civilization. The history during the sixteenth century is a record of exploration and invasion. As early as 1550 the contour of the continent was determined, the country penetrated to the core and European power established. Spanish activity included far the greater part of the habitable area, Portuguese colonization confining itself to Brazil.

Portugal and Spain for three centuries failed to treat their possessions sagaciously or generously, exploiting the colonists as badly as the natives and the resources. Between 1605 and 1767 the Jesuits civilized the Indians of Paraguay. During 1776-1811 colonial loyalty to Spain was everywhere weakened. In 1810-25 came the heroic age. Bolivar, San Martin and Sucre freed Buenos Aires, Chile, New Granada (now Colombia), Quito (now Ecuador), Paraguay and Peru, while Brazil became independent peacefully.

United States president James Monroe, in 1823, enunciated the doctrine that Europe should in no way attempt to control the destiny of South America. During 1825-75 the Spanish Americans suffered greatly, the Brazilians slightly, from civil and foreign wars, but about 1877 an era of progress opened. Our Centennial and Columbian Expositions fostered aspirations for peace and prosperity.

Secretary Blaine, President Cleveland and Secretary Root strengthened political friendship between Latin America and the United States - the first (1881 and 1889) by Pan-American congresses, the second (1896) by forcing Britain to arbitrate the Guiana disagreement with Venezuela, the third (1907) by visiting the southern republics. They participated honorably in the Hague peace-conferences of 1890 and 1907. Argentina, Brazil and Chile have progressed materially.

References:

The New Student's Reference Work (1914)

Regional Sub-Divisions

Available Books

Related Images

Image Name
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Botocoudos, Buris, Patachos et Macharis (1834)
Argentina, Past and Present - Going To School (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Moulin a Sucre (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Chelinga Illapel (1854)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - View of the Town of Paramaribo, with the Road & Shipping from the opposite Shore (1796)
The Present State of Peru - Back Cover (1805)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Indian Stone Axe (1911)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Looking down from the Eastern Edge of Cocovado (1914)
South America, Painted and Described - Cartagena - A Street Scene (1912)
Picturesque Buenos Ayres & Monte Video - A Quinta (Farm) (1820)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Distinctions honorifiques de la famille royale etc (1821)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Barbacena (1835)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Bonaire (1860)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Palais des Incas appele Callo (1821)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - Rio Negro Bridge (1911)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Travels in Brazil - Title Page (1816)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Voyage a Surinam - L'Eglise Catholique-Romaine et un convoi funebre (1839)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - Frontispiece Portrait of the Author (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - The Vampire or Spectre of Guiana (1796)
Travels in the Gold and Diamond Districts of Brazil - Horizontal Corn Mill and Pounding Machine (1825)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Map of Rio de Janeiro (1914)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Un Baile en las Casa del Gobierno (Aniversario de la Independence - 18 Septiembre) (1854)
Peeps at Many Lands: South America - The Docks at Santos (1915)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Sprig of the Cocao, or Chocolate Tree (1796)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - Lake Nahuel Huapi (1914)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni (1570)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 3 - Vue de la Place du Palais a Rio de Janeiro (1839)
Views and Costumes of the City and Neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro - Back Cover (1822)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Thusciae (1570)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Singes de la Guyanne Espagnole (1821)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Cabocle, (Indien Civilise) (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Convoi de Diamans Passant par Caiete (1835)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Vista de los Penascos de la Iglesia cerca de Bilbao (1854)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Back Cover (1796)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Caletensium Verom. (1570)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Parlamento del Presidente Ambrosio O'Higgins (Negrete, 3 Marco 1793) (1854)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Puris dans leurs forets (1821)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Debarquement (1835)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Austriae (1570)
Narratives of South America - Title Page (1836)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Chloe (1854)
Argentina, Past and Present - Front Cover (1914)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Formes, habillement et parure etc [III] (1821)
Voyage a Surinam - Poids de la Ville; un bosch-negre avec sa charrette; un voiturier du port avec sa charette (1839)
Paraguay by Henry Koebel - House of Congress, Asuncion (1917)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - The Lama of South America (1807)
Argentina, Past and Present - Andine Scenery (1914)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Residence of Dr. Pedro de Toledo (1914)
South America, Painted and Described - The Villa Penteado (1912)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Narratives of South America - River Claro (1836)
Voyage a Surinam - Negresses faisant le Takie-Takie (1839)
Argentina, Past and Present - Lake Alumeni District : Rapids near Moquhue (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Les délassements d'une après Diner (1835)
Uruguay by W. H. Koebel - The New Hotel: Piriapolis (1911)
Picturesque Buenos Ayres & Monte Video - South Matadero (Public Butchery) (1820)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Les habitans de Lima (1821)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 2 - Natural History Plate (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Paseo a los Banos de Colina (Santiago) (1854)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - The Pingo Warree, or Wild Boar of Guiana (1796)
Argentina, Past and Present - On the Tigre River (1914)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Jute Mills of the Cia. Nacional de Tecidos de Juta (1914)
Le Costume Ancien et Moderne [Amerique] Vol. 2 - Jeu de la Ciueca (1821)
The Beautiful Rio de Janiero - Municipal Theatre, Avenida Rio Branco (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Habitans de Minas (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Intérieur d'une habitation de Cigannos (1835)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - The Yellow Woodpecker & Wood-louse fowl (1796)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Jogar Capoera ou danse de la guerre (1835)
Travels in Brazil - A Planter and His Wife on a Journey (1816)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Famille de Botocoudos en marche (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Habitans Pecheurs. Cote des Ilheos. (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Meme Chasse dans les Forets Vierges [I] (1835)
Twelve Views in the Interior of Guiana - Ataraipu, the Devil's Rock (1841)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Plan of the City of Buenos Ayres (1807)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Natural History Plate (1854)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Map of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, with the Surrounding States (1807)
Recuerdos de la Monarquia Peruana - Sayri Ttupac (1850)
Argentina, Past and Present - (1914)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Mozambique (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Vegetaux des Forets Vierges [I] (1834)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Vendedores en las Calles (Helader, Brevero, Dulcero, Lechero) (1854)
Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil - Porto do Estrella (1835)
Recuerdos de Lima - El Capeador (1857)
South America, Painted and Described - A View from the Hills Behind Rio (1912)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - The Green Butterfly of South America (1796)

Related Maps

Map Name
Travels in Brazil - Plan of the Port of Pernambuco (1816)
Travels in Brazil - Map of the Route (1816)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 1 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Journal of a Residence in Colombia Vol. 2 - A Map of Colombia (1825)
Cuzco: a Journey to the Ancient Capital of Peru - A Map of Peru (1856)
Vom Tropischen Tieflande zum Ewigen Schnee - Routenkarte von a Goering's Reisen in Venezuela (1892)
History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres - Map of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, with the Surrounding States (1807)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - North Part of West Falkland (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 1 - Plan of Banner Cove, Picton Island, Tierra del Fuego (1857)
A Two Years Cruise off Tierra del Fuego Vol. 2 - Chart of the Coast of Patagonia, the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego (1857)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Guiana (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 1 - A Map of Suriname (1796)
Narrative, of a Five Years Expedition Vol. 2 - Plan of the Principal Field of Action between the Rivers Cottica and Marawina; with a Sketch of the manner of Encamping in the Woods of Surinam (1796)
A Voyage in the West Indies - Caribbee or Leeward Islands (1820)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 1 - Carte du Brésil (1834)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Plan de la Baie de Rio Janeiro (1835)
Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil Vol. 2 - Planta de Cidade de S. Sebastiao de Rio de Janeiro (1835)
A Diary of the Wreck of His Majesty's Ship Challenger - Molguilla Beach Showing the Wreck of the H.M.S. Challenger (1836)
Map of the British Empire in America - A Map of the British Empire in America with the French and Spanish Settlements adjacent thereto. by Henry Popple. (1746)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa para la Inteligencia de la Historia, Fisica, y Politica de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Estrecho de Magallanes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 1 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Archipielago de los Chonos No. 2 (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Chloe (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Mapa de Chile (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Concepcion (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Cauquenes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Talca y de Colcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincias de Santiago y de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Aconcaqua (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Coquimbo (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Provincia de Atacama (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de Juan Fernandes (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Isla de la Mocha (1854)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Barbariae et Biledvlgerid Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Natoliae / Aegypti, Recentior Descriptio / Carthaginis Celeberrim Sinus Typis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palestinae Sive Totius Terrae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Turcici Imperii Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Persicic Sive Sophorum Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Indiae Orientalis Insularumque Adiacientium Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Tartariae Sive Magni Chami Regni (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Poloniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Transilvania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hungariae Descriptio Wolfgang Lazio Auct. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Schlavoniae, Croatiae, Carniae, Istriae, Bosniae, Finitimarumque Regionum Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Graeciae Universae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Cyprus Insula (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Insularum Aliquot Maris Mediterranei Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Neapolitani (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Thusciae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Lakii Lacus Vulgo Terretorii Romani Descrip Fori Iulii (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Pedemontanae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Ducatus Mediolanensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Italia Novissima Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Helvetiae Descriptio Aegidio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Palatinatus Bavariae Descriptio et Wirtenbergensis Duvatus Vera Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Vindelicae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Salisburgensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Austriae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Silesiae Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Bohemiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Franciae Orientalis Monasteriensis (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Saxoniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Daniae Regni Typus (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Vtriusque (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Hollandiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Zelandicarum et Prussiae Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Flandria (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Brabantiae (1570)
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Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Germania (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Narbonensis / Sabaundiae et Burgundiae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Caletensium / Verom. (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regionis Biturigum Limaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Galliae Regni Potentiss (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Portugalliae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Regni Hispaniae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae sive Britannicar Insularum Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Europae (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Africae Tabula Nova (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Asiae Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - America Sive Novi Orbis Nova Descriptio (1570)
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum - Typus Orbis Terrarum (1570)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto de San Carlos (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Talcahuano (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano del Puerto Constitucion (1841) (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Bahia de Valparaiso (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano De Santiago (1854)
Atlas de Historia fisica y Politica de Chile Vol. 1 - Plano de la Batalla de Maypu (1854)
South America, Painted and Described - Sketch Map of South America (1912)
Argentina, Past and Present - Map Accompanying Argentina Past and Present, Second Edition (1914)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Generale Verzamelkaart der Nederlandsche Westindische Bezittingen (1860)
Gezigten uit Neerland's West-Indien - Schels Kaart van de Kolonie Suriname of Ned[erlan]sch Guiana (1860)
The Expedition of Pedro de Ursua & Lope de Aguirre - A Map Shewing the Track of the Expedition of Pedro de Ursua and Lope de Aguirre AD 1560-61 (1861)

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